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Pitch

Pitch   Reference library

Bruce Haynes and Peter Cooke

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
12,490 words

...of Italians such as Giuseppe Sammartini and their instruments at A–1 and A+0. In the period 1730–70 both new Consort-pitch at Q–2 ( a′ ≈ 423) and A+0 ( a′ ≈ 435) began to appear in woodwinds. By 1770 there were almost no woodwinds at the older Consort-pitch (Q–3); Q–2 was still present, but most woodwinds were at A+0 (which was by then common in Venice, Paris, Vienna, and much of Germany). Only organs retained the last vestige of the Quire-pitch grid, the majority being tuned to Q–2. (vii) Classical pitches, 1765–1830. By the last part of the 18th...

Bassoon

Bassoon   Reference library

William Waterhouse and James B. Kopp

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
17,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1764) E.L. Gerber : Historisch - biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler (Leipzig, 1790–2) H. C. Koch : Musikalisches Lexikon (Frankfurt am Main, 1802) C. Baermann : ‘Ueber die Natur und Eigenthümlichkeit des Fagotts’, AMZ , vol.22 (1820), 601–7 C. Almenräder : Abhandlung über die Verbesserung des Fagotts (Mainz, 1823) G. Weber : ‘Wesentliche Verbesserungen des Fagottes’, Caecilia [Mainz], vol.2 (1825), 123–40 [incl. illustration] G. Weber : ‘C. Almenräders weitere Fagott–Verbesserung’, Caecilia [Mainz], vol.9 (1828), 128 C. Almenräder...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
23,637 words
Illustration(s):
20

...by the required amount. On the tablā , five harmonic partials originate from nine normal modes of vibration, several of which have the same frequencies. The fundamental tone is from the (0,1) mode; the 2nd harmonic is from the (1,1) mode; the (2,1) and (0,2) modes provide the 3rd harmonic; the (3,1) and (1,2) modes supply the 4th harmonic; and the (4,1), (0,3), and (2,2) modes contribute to the 5th harmonic. In double-headed drums, such as the snare drum and the bass drum, there is considerable coupling between the two heads as they vibrate, especially at low...

Sound

Sound   Reference library

Charles Taylor

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
13,777 words
Illustration(s):
16

...attempt to provide a unit that, though based on physical measurement, bears some relationship to perceived sensation. If the ratio of two physically measured sound intensities is I 1 :I 2 , then I 1 has a level n decibels above I 2 if n = 10 log 10 (I 1 /I 2 ). Thus since log 10 2 is 0.3010, if the ratio I 1 :I 2 is 2:1, I1 is approximately 3 decibels louder than I 2 . Decibel levels can, of course, be added, so for example a sound that starts at a level of 10 dB above some fixed standard and is then amplified by a factor of two will finish up 13 dB...

Recording and playback devices

Recording and playback devices   Reference library

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, D.E.L. Shorter, John Borwick, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, and John Borwick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,541 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Audio (Indianapolis, 1985, 3/1995) J. Eargle : Handbook of Recording Engineering (New York, 1986, 3/1996) D.M. Huber and R.E. Runstei : Modern Recording Techniques (Burlington, 7/2010) Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume (I, 1); Jerome F. Weber (I, 2); Jerome F. Weber /R (I, 3–5); Jerome F. Weber (with John Borwick )/ Anne Beetem Acker (I, 6); D.E.L. Shorter / John Borwick /R (II, 1–5); John Borwick / Anne Beetem Acker (II, 6); John Borwick /R (II, 7–10) ...

Computer

Computer   Reference library

Peter Manning, Anne Beetem Acker, Peter Manning, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,238 words
Illustration(s):
1

...great advances in organological research and computer-assisted instrument design and manufacture. Computer program instructions and data are coded as binary digital patterns (sequences of 0 and 1), corresponding to the binary (‘off’ and ‘on’) states of the electronic circuits. The number of binary digits or ‘bits’ used for each pattern varies, but is always a power of 2, such as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bit. At the heart of a computer lies a central processing unit (CPU) capable of executing arithmetical instructions such as ‘add’, ‘subtract’, ‘multiply’, and...

Trumpet

Trumpet   Reference library

Margaret Sarkissian and Edward H. Tarr

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,279 words
Illustration(s):
4

...633–8 F.-J. Fétis : ‘Cors à pistons’, ReM , vol.2 (1828), 153–64 K. Bagans : ‘On the Trumpet, as at Present Employed in the Orchestra’, American Musical Journal , vol.1 (1834–5), 252–5 G. Weber : ‘Ueber Ventilhorn und Ventiltrompete mit drei Ventilen’, Caecilia [Mainz], vol.17 (1835), 73–105 H. Eichborn : Die Trompete in alter und neuer Zeit (Leipzig, 1881/ R ) H. Pietzsch : Die Trompete als Orchester-Instrument und ihre Behandlung in den verschiedenen Epochen der Musik (Heilbronn, 1901, 2/1906/ R , Ger. and Eng. texts) V.C. Mahillon : Instruments...

Timpani

Timpani   Reference library

James Blades and Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the hide is treated to preserve the skin during the process of unhairing, after which it is strengthened by immersion in a lime solution and stretched on a frame, the ‘spine’ orientated vertically. It is then scraped by hand or equalized by machinery to a thickness of from 0.125 to 0.175 mm. To mount a vellum head properly, it must first be soaked in cold water until pliable and then lapped completely around the flesh hoop. The lapped head is then placed on the bowl and the counter-hoop adjusted to draw the head slightly down over the rim, giving it a...

Electronic instruments

Electronic instruments   Reference library

Hugh Davies

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
40,167 words

...over the years: the original Hammond organ, weighing about 80 kg, was considered portable; in the 1950s small dance band or ‘combo’ organs weighed about 35 kg and could be fitted into the boot of a car; nowadays a small keyboard can weigh as little as 2.5 kg, while a miniature monophonic instrument weighs about 0.5 kg or less and can be carried in a pocket. From the mid-1980s electronic organs were primarily based on digital synthesis, then on different combinations of synthesized and sampled sounds, and more recently entirely on sampled sounds. Solo performances...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Harvey Turnbull/Paul Sparks/R (1, 2, 5, 6, 8(ii)), James Tyler/R (3, 4), Tony Bacon/R (7), Oleg V. Timofeyev (8(i)), Gerhard Kubik/R (8(iii)), Thomas F. Heck (Bibliography)

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,769 words
Illustration(s):
1

... T. Stone : ‘A New Tonal Universe for the Guitar: Interchangeable Fingerboards’, Guitar & Lute , vol.6 (1978), 19–21 M. Weber : ‘Gitarrenkorpus geometrisch abgeleitet: Instrumentengeschichte aus Spanien’, Instrumentenbau-Zeitschrift , vol.32 (1978), 774 only K. Achard : The History and Development of the American Guitar (London, 1979) D. Denning : ‘The Vihuela: Royal Guitar of 16th–Century Spain’, Soundboard , vol.6/2 (1979), 38–41 T. Evans and others: Guitares: chefs d’oeuvre des collections de France (Paris, 1980) T. Heck : ‘Mysteries in...

Sociology of music

Sociology of music   Reference library

John Shepherd and Kyle Devine

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,553 words

...2007), 183–224 A. Hennion : “Those Things That Hold Us Together: Taste and Sociology,” Cultural Sociology , i/1 (2007), 97–114 J. Williamson and M. Cloonan : “Rethinking the Music Industry,” Popular Music , xxvi/2 (2007), 305–22 D. Beer : “Making Friends with Jarvis Cocker: Music Culture in the Context of Web 2.0,” Cultural Sociology , ii/2 (2008), 222–41 K. Bijsterveld : Mechanical Sound: Technology, Culture, and Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA, 2008) D. Hesmondhalgh : “Towards a Critical Understanding of Music, Emotion...

Weill, Kurt

Weill, Kurt (2 March 1900)   Reference library

bruce d. mcclung

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,777 words

...‘The Ballad of Mack the Knife,’” Journal of Popular Music Studies , ix/2 (2007), 157–78 B.D. Mcclung : Lady in the Dark: Biography of a Musical (New York, 2007) S. Whitfield : Kurt Weill: the ‘Composer as Dramatist’ in American Musical Theatre Production (diss., U. of London, 2010) Kurt Weill Foundation, 〈 http://www.kwf.org 〉 Kurt-Weill-Gesellschaft, 〈 http://www.kurt-weill-gesellschaft.de/pages_d/kwg_1_0_0_0.html 〉 Kurt-Weill-Centre, 〈 http://www.kurt-weill.de/pages_en/kwz_6_0_0_0.html 〉 bruce d. mcclung...

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