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Web 1.0/Web 2.0

Web 1.0/Web 2.0   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Web 1.0/Web 2.0 . The terms Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are typically used to compare different stages in the development of the World Wide Web (invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee). As the numbers suggest, Web 1.0 is used to refer to the first stage in the development of the web, whereas Web 2.0 (a term coined in 1999 ) denotes a later stage, which became prominent in the mid-2000s. At the heart of the comparison between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is a perceived shift with respect to the web’s interactivity. Web 1.0 is seen as a read-only, comparatively...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2,782,500 speakers in the highland regions and lowland except around Apolo. Dialects are Sucre, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca. May be intelligible with Chilean Quechua and Northwest Jujuy Quechua in Argentina. In Argentina: 850,000 speakers in Buenos Aires, some working on docks. Some speakers also in Salta Province. Quechua, Southern Pastaza: also called Inga. 1,000 speakers in Peru, the northern jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga Rivers, and along the Urituyacu. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...documents (Web page files) with arbitrary text is a CFL. An HTML document (with arbitrary text content) has this sort of structure: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> Jane Doe's Home Page </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1> Jane Doe </H1> <H2> Home Page </H2> <P> <CENTER> <IMG src=“jane.jpg”> </CENTER> </P> </BODY> </HTML> The expression <HTML> must be followed by </HTML>, <HEAD> must be followed by </HEAD>, and so on, in the same pattern as matched parentheses. Thus, recognizing that a string belongs to a certain CFL is one of the tasks performed by a Web browser. The CFLs...

Parsing

Parsing   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,504 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and noun phrase parser for unrestricted text. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACL Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing , pp. 136–143. Austin, Tex. Collins, Michael . 1997. Three generative, lexicalised models for statistical parsing. In Proceedings of the 35th Meeting of the ACL , pp. 16–23. Madrid. Frazier, Lyn , and Janet Dean Fodor . 1978. The sausage machine: A new two stage parsing model . Cognition 6.291–325. Grosz, Barbara J. , Karen Sparck Jones , and Bonnie Lynn Webber , eds. 1986. Readings in natural language processing . Los Altos,...

Acquisition of Language

Acquisition of Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
14,519 words

...first hundred words, they may over-extend up to 40% of them. Under-extensions and overlaps are harder to document; however, they may be even more pervasive in children's meanings, during a longer period, than over-extensions. The latter become rare by the age of 2;0 (i.e. 2 years, 0 months) to 2;6. Most observations about early meanings have come from diary studies of language production; however, researchers have also examined some sources of children's hypotheses about word-meanings by looking systematically at how children understand words, as well as...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...New York: Academic Press. Green, Bert F. , et al. 1961. BASEBALL: An automatic question answerer. Reprinted in Grosz et al. 1986, pp. 545–549. Grosz, Barbara J. , Karen Sparck Jones , and Bonnie L. Webber , eds. 1986. Readings in natural language processing . Los Altos, Calif.: Kaufmann. Harris, Larry R. 1984. Experience with INTELLECT . AI Magazine 5:2.3–50. Hendrix, Gary G. , et al. 1978. Developing a natural language interface to complex data. Reprinted in Grosz et al. 1986, pp. 563–584. Hutchins, William John . 1986. Machine translation: Past,...

Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
11,108 words

...is related to factors like ‘preceding sound segment is a vowel’, ‘subject type is a Full NP’, ‘speaker is female’, or ‘style is formal’, using data on rule applications in various environments. These weightings range between 0 and 1. The closer these numbers are to 1, the more highly favoring the effect is; the closer they are to 0, the more disfavoring the effect is. For example, in the variation between [ŋ] and [n], a factor weight of .75 for [ŋ] would indicate that there is a very strong probability for [ŋ] in the environment in question (perhaps a...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,344 words

...are no less interesting in light of the fact that most were written prior to 1994 and can now be evaluated in light of the advent and growth of the World Wide Web. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0 . Baltimore, 1997. As the definitive work on hypertext to date, this book describes the development, nature, and applications of hypertext, primarily in the period just prior to its use on the World Wide Web. Applying the critical theories of Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Barthes, Lyotard, and others, Landow explains how the phenomenon of hypertext changes how we...

Switch Reference in Morphology

Switch Reference in Morphology   Reference library

Rik van Gijn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
6,892 words
Illustration(s):
34

...New Guinea: SIL. Weber, D. (1989). A grammar of Huallaga (Huánuco) Quechua . Berkeley: University of California Press. Weisser, P. (2016). Is there switch-reference marking in coordinated clauses? In R. van Gijn & J. Hammond (Eds.), Switch reference 2.0 (pp. 93–114). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. Notes 1. Given the different functions of SR markers in the languages of the world, the SR markers will generally be glossed and referred to as ‘identity’ versus ‘non-identity’ markers, independently of their original gloss. 2. For the use of...

Lexical Typology in Morphology

Lexical Typology in Morphology   Reference library

Maria Koptjevskaja Tamm and Ljuba Veselinova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
23,481 words
Illustration(s):
23

...Verbs in Palula [phl] Rank Verb stem Gloss % text occurrence 1 hin ‘be’ 25.0 2 bhe ‘become’ 8.2 3 the ‘do’ 7.7 4 Be ‘go’ 5.5 5 mane ‘say’ 5.0 6 háans ‘live, exist’ 3.9 7 De ‘give, fall’ 3.6 8 yhe ‘come’ 3.6 9 thane ‘call, say, name’ 2.3 10 whe ‘get down’ 1.8 11 Kha ‘eat’ 1.7 12 nikhé ‘appear, get out’ 1.4 13 dac̣hé ‘look’ 1.2 14 Har ‘take away’ 1.1 15 mhaaré ‘kill’ 1.1 16 Je ‘hit, beat’ 1.1 17 ur͎í ‘let out, pour’ 0.9 18 bheš ‘sit down’ 0.9 19 čhooré ‘put’ 0.8 20 khoojá ‘ask’ 0.8 Note: Table adapted from Liljegren ( 2010 , pp. 54–55). Central and South...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...in an Electronic Age . New York, 1988. Claims that informal conversational structure has replaced formal argument in televised political exchanges. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . 2d ed. Baltimore, 1977. Argues that the linear arrangement of individual literary texts will be replaced by continuous webs of text. Larsen, Richard . “ Toward a Linear Rhetoric of the Essay. ” College Composition and Communication 22 (1971), pp. 140–146. An application of speech act theory to arrangement,...

Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

Quantitative Methods in Morphology: Corpora and Other “Big Data” Approaches

Quantitative Methods in Morphology: Corpora and Other “Big Data” Approaches   Reference library

Marco Marelli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
7,139 words

...corpora are a central instrument in language investigation, as well as a source of training data for automatic systems for language processing. At the beginning of the 21st century , the importance of text corpora in the study of language has become even more marked due to the Web and technological development in computer science. The former has become a rich source for linguistic data, permitting accessibility to a range of examples of language usage in a number of languages and registers. Unlike traditional corpora, these texts are often unedited and...

Words Versus Rules (Storage Versus Online Production/Processing) in Morphology

Words Versus Rules (Storage Versus Online Production/Processing) in Morphology   Reference library

Vsevolod Kapatsinski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
8,804 words

...to generate realistic pseudowords, and word-frequency norms are available at http://crr.ugent.be/programs-data . Baayen et al.’s (2011) Naive Discriminative Learner, a single-layer connectionist network model is available as a package for R: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ndl/index.html . Daelemans & van den Bosch’s (2005) Tilburg Memory-based Learner (TiMBL), an analogical model is available at https://languagemachines.github.io/timbl/ . Usage-based linguistics . Frequency effects . Processing of morphology . Connectionism...

World-Wide Web

World-Wide Web   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...World-Wide Web ( WWW , the Web ) . A global electronic system for organizing, making available and accessing documents on the internet using a hypertext system. See web 1.0/web 2.0 . ...

Chat

Chat   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...A type of communication that is defined by being internet-based, synchronous, conversational-like, and not necessarily restricted to one-to-one communication. Early uses of chat pre-date the web , with the first chat system being established in 1973 . Early popular chat systems included ICQ (‘I seek you’) and AOL’s Instant Messenger. With the development of Web 2.0, chat services became increasingly incorporated into various websites and is now a standard feature of most online communication, e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Skype. The integration with smartphones...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...exclusively on the web ( see worldwide web ). Hypertext derives from an idea put forward in 1945 by the US computer designer Vannevar Bush , and the term was coined by the US entrepreneur Ted Nelson . Educational and other systems which include pictures and sound, are known as hypermedia . Hypertext has its own protocol associated to it: HTML, or hypertext protocol markup language. Developments in hypertext, such as XML and RSS, have led to important development in online communication, notably Wikipedia, blogs , news feeds, web 2.0 , and social media...

Affordance

Affordance   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...studies generally to refer to the opportunities made available by a resource, especially a technology. It is typically used to describe the range of potential uses made available to the user. This term is often used in contrast to ‘constraint’. For example, the development of web 2.0 brought new affordances to computer-mediated communication and meant that there were new things that users could do, for example commenting on a blog , something that at the time of writing is taken for granted. ...

Wikipedia

Wikipedia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the English Wikipedia is that there is no single preferred variety of English and ‘an article on a topic that has strong ties to a particular English-speaking nation uses the appropriate variety of English for that nation’ (Wikipedia). See digital writing ; hypertext ; web 1.0/web 2.0 . ...

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...important claims about how they view and position themselves vis-à-vis others and how they view others vis-à-vis themselves. SNSs became popular in the 2000s, particularly from the latter half onwards, and are central to current definitions of the worldwide web as social and participatory ( see web 2.0 ). They are hence typically classified as ‘social media’. Yet aside from this defining feature, there is much variation among SNS networks. They vary with respect to both technological affordances (e.g. modality and synchronicity) and social factors (e.g....

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