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Metals

Metals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,951 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Figure 1. Near Eastern Roman surgical instruments . (1) Embryo hooks from Ephesus in Anatolia; (2) spatulae from North Syria; (3) late nineteenth-century illustration of scalpels from Idalion, Cyprus; (4) instrument handle fashioned as a mouse symbolizing the healing god Apollo Smintheus from southwest Asia Minor; (5) dental forceps from a tomb at Gadara, Jordan. (Items 1–4 after Künzl, 1983, figs. 20, 97, 23, and 14 respectively; item 5 after Künzl and Weber, 1991, fig. 4) In healing the sick and the injured, doctors made use of a variety of bronze and iron...

Archaeobotany: Methods

Archaeobotany: Methods   Reference library

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,900 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and wood charcoal, which tend to be different specializations carried out by different specialists. The smallest seeds are around 0.2 mm but most macro-remains are >0.5 mm and are studied with a basic low-power binocular microscope and reflected light. Wood charcoal fragments smaller than 2 mm are unlikely to be identifiable and microscopes need to range between 40× and 200×. In contrast, micro-remains are so small (<0.1 mm) that they can only be seen under a microscope. Sampling of sediments or residues for micro-remains are processed in a laboratory...

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent J. Hare and Emma Loftus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,060 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Valley,” Goodwin Series 8 (December 2000): 51 .]. 2. David K. Wright, “Accuracy vs. Precision: Understanding Potential Errors from Radiocarbon Dating on African Landscapes,” African Archaeological Review 34, no. 3 (September 30, 2017): 303–319. 3. It is now known that this value is very slightly inaccurate, but radiocarbon dating laboratories continue to use the original estimate to maintain comparability. 4. Paula J. Reimer et al., “IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years Cal BP,” Radiocarbon 55 (2013):...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...University of Virginia Press, 2004. Notes 1. See also Harald Hammarström , Robert Forkel , and Martin Haspelmath , eds., Glottolog 3.0 (Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 2017), ; Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson , “Introduction,” in The Bantu Languages , ed. Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson , Routledge Language Family Series (London: Routledge, 2003). 2. Derek Nurse and Thomas J. Hinnebusch , Swahili and Sabaki: A Linguistic History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 14. 3. ...

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