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Web-Based Digital Interpretation

Web-Based Digital Interpretation   Reference library

Elisa Giaccardi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,694 words

...concerns about the need of best practices in the use of digital data. In particular, social networks and Web 2.0 applications for content and media sharing are expanding the idea of archaeology “by the people, for the people.” They activate local knowledge and promote user communities’ participation and engagement in the production and interpretation of archaeological findings. Technologies for the Public Presentation of Digital Interpretation. Web-based practices of archaeological interpretation and communication make use of a large spectrum of...

Cultural Creativity

Cultural Creativity   Reference library

Ian Alden Russell

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
689 words

...enabled through Web 2.0 digital architectures and virtual worlds such as Second Life, expanding the possibilities of archaeological interpretive processes. Whichever media form or creative outlet it uses, archaeology as a transdisciplinary pursuit has explored and will continue to explore new and innovative ways of opening up discursive realms for encountering, experiencing, and understanding the archaeological endeavor. [ See also Digital Interpretation ; Popular Culture, Portrayal of Archaeology in ; Virtual Worlds ; Web-Based Digital...

Digital Recording

Digital Recording   Reference library

Mario Santana-Quintero

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,874 words

...shared, Web 2.0 systems with relational data structures, XML, and other standards are perhaps the most promising system: highly customizable, adaptable, and easy to share. However, such systems are still an emerging technology (see, e.g., https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/247488/1/2004-10-vsmm_paper_msq_bw2.pdf , and the UNESCO World Heritage portal: http://whc.unesco.org ). Furthermore, emerging tools in the research, valorization, and dissemination of archaeological sites have appeared, as the result of developments of Web 2.0 applications...

Databases

Databases   Reference library

Angela M. Labrador

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,076 words

...GPS units meant that archaeologists could enter data directly into a DBMS in the field. The public release of the World Wide Web in 1993 was another transformative moment in the history of archaeological databases. The proliferation of Web-accessible interfaces to archaeological data required around-the-clock access to data by a growing, diverse audience. In 2004, online information delivery began to shift to the “Web 2.0” model, which emphasizes user-generated content, social networking, and interoperability. Museum professionals, archivists, and...

Archival Management of Archaeological Records

Archival Management of Archaeological Records   Reference library

Eleanor King, Paige M. Peyton, and Duncan H. Brown

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,323 words

...Archaeology . http://www.worldarchaeologicalcongress.org/site/nicholas_hollowell.php . Written by George P. Nicholas and Julie Hollowell. A brief article discussing new interpretations of cultural property rights. Society of American Archivists. http://www2.archivists.org/standards . Offers numerous web pages and links for publications, e-publications, and brochures dealing with archival methods and practices. Eleanor King ; revised by Paige M. Peyton Archival Management of Archaeological Records: International Standards An archaeological archive may be defined...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Donald Malcolm Reid, Neil Asher Silberman, Diane Holmes, Isabella Caneva, Ogden Goelet, Miroslav Bárta, Donald B. Spanel, Josef Wegner, and Edward Bleiberg

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,837 words

..., 2d ed., 2006. Diane Holmes revised by Isabella Caneva Egypt: Old Kingdom Egypt Old Kingdom Egypt is one of the world’s earliest states. Our image of this period is based on ancient written sources (papyri, monumental and tomb inscriptions, seal impressions), architectural, archaeological, and iconographic evidence, and environmental data. Our understanding of daily life in this period is derived chiefly from archaeological finds and the scenes of daily life found in the hundreds of private tombs belonging to the nobility and high officials. “Dynasty 0”...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...beginning days named the year and followed in mathematically determined regular sequence: 1 Akbal, 2 Lamat, 3 Ben, 4 Etz’nab, 5 Akbal…; 1 Imix, which began the 260-day period, could fall only on the fourth, ninth, fourteenth, and nineteenth days of the month and hence could never begin the year. Day names were associated with many other phenomena. Those most emphasized by the Maya were colors and directions. The most commonly used era base was a day 13.0.0.0.04 Ahau 8 Cumku, 3,000 years before the earliest known dated monuments were erected. The recorded...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

George Michaels, Gregory L. Possehl, Charles Higham, Song Nai Rhee, Kidong Bae, and Namita Sugandhi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,562 words

...occurred by around 1.7 million years BP, though that is also debatable. The oldest accepted hominin in China is Homo erectus from Gongwangling, dated to about 1.2 million years BP. Acheulian-like stone industries have been observed at many localities in China; for instance, in the Bose basin in southwestern China and the Luonan basin in central China. The Bose lithic industry is dated back to 0.8 million years ago, while the Luonan basin bifaces are considered younger. Despite the presence of bifaces, stone tool industries before the advent of the Upper...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

Yannis Hamilakis, Neil Asher Silberman, John K. Papadopoulos, Ian Morris, H. A. Shapiro, Mark D. Stansbury-O’Donnell, Frank Holt, and Timothy E. Gregory

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
11,848 words

...900–700 BC , 2d ed., 2003. Coldstream, John Nicholas , and H. W. Catling , eds. Knossos North Cemetery: Early Greek Tombs , 1996. Desborough, Vincent Robin d’Arba . The Greek Dark Ages , 1972. Hägg, Robin , ed. The Greek Renaissance of the Eighth Century B.C.: Tradition and Innovation . Proceedings of the Second International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens, 1–5 June 1981, 1983. Hooker, J. T. “From Mycenae to Homer.” In Studies in Honour of T. B. L. Weber , edited by J. H. Betts , J. T. Hooker , and J. R. Green , vol. 2, pp. 57–64,...

Music and Dance, Bronze and Iron Age

Music and Dance, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Theodore W. Burgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,641 words

...other noisemakers ( 2 Sam 6:5 ASV). The description of the transportation of the ark to Jerusalem ( 2 Sam 6:5 ) employs the term mena ʿ anim , derived from the verb nua , “to shake,” suggesting a translation as “rattles” or some shaken instruments. Yet, several Bibles use castanets (NRSV, WEB), coronets (KJVS), and lutes (LXX). Sistrums (JPS) is also plausible, given how one plays the instrument. Cymbals ( tzelzelim ) were also known in Israel. In the Bible, they first appear in the instrumentation that accompanied moving the ark ( 2 Sam 6:5 ). They were...

Religion, Roman

Religion, Roman   Reference library

Karl Galinsky, Richard L. Gordon, and Eric Orlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
12,938 words

..., koina ; Latin collegia , corpora ) were organized both at the civic level and by private religious entrepreneurs—what may be called, with Max Weber, “mystagogues”—who used their financial resources to rent, furnish, maintain, and sometimes even build accommodation for their association (a good example is the association of the Dionysiastai in Peiraeus/Attica: IG II2 1326 = Jaccottet, 2003 , 2: no.2 = Kloppenborg, Ascough, and Harland, 2011–2013 , 1: no. 36, 176/5 b.c.e. ). Members undertook to pay an entrance fee, often in kind (food or wine but...

Metals

Metals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,951 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Figure 1. Near Eastern Roman surgical instruments . (1) Embryo hooks from Ephesus in Anatolia; (2) spatulae from North Syria; (3) late nineteenth-century illustration of scalpels from Idalion, Cyprus; (4) instrument handle fashioned as a mouse symbolizing the healing god Apollo Smintheus from southwest Asia Minor; (5) dental forceps from a tomb at Gadara, Jordan. (Items 1–4 after Künzl, 1983, figs. 20, 97, 23, and 14 respectively; item 5 after Künzl and Weber, 1991, fig. 4) In healing the sick and the injured, doctors made use of a variety of bronze and iron...

Archaeobotany: Methods

Archaeobotany: Methods   Reference library

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,900 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and wood charcoal, which tend to be different specializations carried out by different specialists. The smallest seeds are around 0.2 mm but most macro-remains are >0.5 mm and are studied with a basic low-power binocular microscope and reflected light. Wood charcoal fragments smaller than 2 mm are unlikely to be identifiable and microscopes need to range between 40× and 200×. In contrast, micro-remains are so small (<0.1 mm) that they can only be seen under a microscope. Sampling of sediments or residues for micro-remains are processed in a laboratory...

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent J. Hare and Emma Loftus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,060 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Valley,” Goodwin Series 8 (December 2000): 51 .]. 2. David K. Wright, “Accuracy vs. Precision: Understanding Potential Errors from Radiocarbon Dating on African Landscapes,” African Archaeological Review 34, no. 3 (September 30, 2017): 303–319. 3. It is now known that this value is very slightly inaccurate, but radiocarbon dating laboratories continue to use the original estimate to maintain comparability. 4. Paula J. Reimer et al., “IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years Cal BP,” Radiocarbon 55 (2013):...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...University of Virginia Press, 2004. Notes 1. See also Harald Hammarström , Robert Forkel , and Martin Haspelmath , eds., Glottolog 3.0 (Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 2017), ; Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson , “Introduction,” in The Bantu Languages , ed. Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson , Routledge Language Family Series (London: Routledge, 2003). 2. Derek Nurse and Thomas J. Hinnebusch , Swahili and Sabaki: A Linguistic History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 14. 3. ...

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