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organic viticulture

organic viticulture   Reference library

Monty Waldin

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,221 words

...in 2000 ), Spain (5.2% in 2010 ; <1% in 1999 ), Portugal ( c .1% in 2011 ); Germany (5.6% in 2011 ; 1.8% in 2003 ; 1.2% in 1994 ); Austria (9.2% in 2012 ; 6% in 2009 ; 1% in 1999 ; 0.3% in 1992 ); Greece (4% in 2010 ; 1% in 2000 ); Lebanon (4.5% in 2010 ); England and Wales (3.4% in 2010 ); California ( c .4% in 2011 ; 1.1% in 1999 ; 0.17% in 1989 ); Oregon (12% in 2013 ; 8.6% in 2009 ; 1.4% in 1999 ); Washington state (2.5% in 2011 ; 0.6% in 1999 ); Canada (2.8% in 2011 ); New Zealand (7.6% in 2012 ; 2% in 2009 ; 0.7% in 1999 );...

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
26,260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...no contraception in their last sexual intercourse (see Table 22). Table 22 Pregnancies per 1,000 Unmarried Women, Grouped According to Consequences, 1980–1988 Year “Forced” Marriage Birth Out of Wedlock Abortion Total 1980 2.8 2.4 5.3 10.5 1981 2.9 1.9 5.3 10.1 1982 2.5 2.1 5.1 9.7 1983 2.3 2.2 5.3 10.0 1984 2.1 2.0 4.4 8.5 1985 1.9 2.0 4.4 8.4 1986 1.9 2.1 4.1 8.1 1987 1.6 2.3 3.8 7.7 1988 1.6 2.3 3.8 7.7 Source : Van Delft & Ketting ( 1992 , 61, Table 22). ( IES2 Table 11, p. 941) Adults Van Delft and Ketting ( 1992 ) have reported the most recent...

South Korea

South Korea   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Korea. Table 7 Contraceptive-Practice Rate of Married Women, Aged 15–44 Year Total Tubectomy Vasectomy IUD Pills Condom Others 1976 44.2% 4.1% 10.5% 7.8% 7.8% 6.3% 11.3% 1979 54.5 14.5 9.6 7.2 7.2 5.2 12.1 1982 57.7 23.0 6.7 5.4 5.4 7.2 10.3 1985 70.4 31.6 7.4 4.3 4.3 7.2 11.0 1988 77.1 37.2 6.7 2.8 2.8 10.2 9.2 1991 79.4 35.3 9.0 3.0 3.0 10.2 9.9 1994 77.4 28.6 10.5 1.8 1.8 14.3 10.6 1997 80.5 24.1 13.2 1.8 1.8 15.1 13.6 Source : Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs 1998 B. Teenage (Unmarried) Pregnancies Huso Yi As noted earlier, premarital...

Iceland

Iceland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,973 words
Illustration(s):
1

...end of 1999 , a total of 50 cases of AIDS had been diagnosed and reported to the authorities; 33 Icelanders have died of AIDS. Table 7 Incidence of HIV from 1985 to 1996 per 100,000 Population Total Women Men 1985 7.5 1.7 13.2 1990 2.0 — 3.9 1991 3.9 1.6 6.2 1992 4.2 0.8 7.6 1993 1.1 0.8 1.5 1994 3.0 1.5 4.5 1995 1.9 1.5 2.2 1996 1.9 1.5 2.2 ( Source : Hagstofa Íslands 1997 ) Treatment, Prevention Programs, and Government Policies In 1988 , a national AIDS committee was formed by the Ministry of Health. The role of this committee included creation of...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
44,393 words
Illustration(s):
6

...marry soon 20.3 22.3 17.6 23.1 19.6 27.9 19.1 23.7 Want to marry eventually, regardless of age 45.9 45.4 59.7 50.9 58.5 53.6 53.9 49.3 No preference to marry or not 14.3 18.7 13.1 17.7 15.6 14.1 14.0 17.4 Will remain unmarried 2.4 3.0 1.6 3.1 1.2 2.3 1.8 2.9 Other 1.2 0.7 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.9 Cannot answer 11.7 8.5 5.4 3.6 3.3 0.6 7.6 5.0 Don't know; Not answered 4.2 1.4 1.5 0.5 0.9 0.4 2.5 0.8 Total (percentage) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total (persons) 1,008 1,008 1,008 1,008 424 488 2,440 2,504 ( IES2 Table 9, p. 814) C. Sex and...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
61,965 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1 Cases Rate/100,000 1 Chlamydia 1997 1,510 145.6 9,588 971.6 1998 1,934 184.0 10,599 1,063.4 1999 1,976 186.7 11,428 1,138.9 2000 2,339 220.0 12,451 1,236.1 Gonococcal infections 1997 333 31.5 725 69.7 1998 327 31.1 799 80.2 1999 337 31.8 798 79.5 2000 435 40.9 971 96.4 Infectious syphilis 1997 1 0.1 2 0.2 1998 2 0.2 5 0.5 1999 1 0.1 8 0.8 2000 0 0.0 7 0.7 1 Age specific rates. Data source : Division of Sexual Health Promotion and STD Prevention and Control, Bureau of HIV/AIDS, STD & TB, Health Canada 2002 . Among the nonreportable STDs, herpes simplex 2,...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
14,550 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Institutions, and Private Hospitals from 1990 to 1997 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Syphilis 87 100 78 94 133 147 129 153 Male Deaths 3 1 2 1 4 3 0 0 Female Deaths 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 Gonorrhea 22 11 11 8 20 17 12 19 (Hong Kong Government Department of Health statistics 1990–1997 ) B. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Incidence The statistics on HIV/AIDS come from voluntary reporting since 1984 . The cumulative number of HIV/AIDS cases as of June 1998 , and some analysis, are shown in Table 3. The trend is an increasing number of HIV/AIDS cases reported year...

Norway

Norway   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
14,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of time. Table 1 Frequency of Intercourse for Men and Women Who Lived with a Partner, 1992 Number of Intercourses Last Month Men Women 0 58% 57% 12 10 13 3–4 10 12 5–10 11 10 > 11 10 9 Table 2 Comparison of Frequency of Intercourse for Years 1987 and 1992 Number of Intercourses Per Year 1987 1992 0 17.9% 20.2% 1–9 27.2 37.0 10–49 29.8 22.5 50+ 25.1 20.3 Table 3 Frequency of Intercourse by Age Group Frequency Age 18–29 Age 30–39 Age 40–49 Age 50–60 Less than once a day 1.1% 0.5% 0.6% 0.7% Daily 2.7 1.1 1.2 0.3 5–6 times a week 6.9 3.0 2.6 2.0 3–4 times a week...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reasons. Nonetheless, the cost of unwanted pregnancies and abortions reinforces the current position. Table 2 A Comparison of Birth Control Methods Used Worldwide and in Colombia (1995) Contraceptive Method Worldwide Usage Colombian Usage Tubal ligation 13.0% 16.9% Vasectomy 5.9 0.7 Vaginal suppository 1.0 1.0 Oral contraceptives 8.0 8.5 Intrauterine device (IUD) 9.0 7.4 Injectable contraceptives 1.0 1.8 Coitus interruptus 4.0 6.0 Rhythm 4.0 5.3 Condom 5.0 4.3 Oral contraceptives are the second most frequently used contraceptive method. According to Article 100...

Croatia

Croatia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,611 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: 0–14 years : 18.3% with 1.05 male(s) per female (sex ratio); 15–64 years : 66.3% with 1.01 male(s) per female; 65 years and over : 15.4% with 0.6 male(s) per female; Total population sex ratio : 0.94 male(s) to 1 female Life Expectancy at Birth : Total Population : 74.13 years; male : 70.52 years; female : 77.06 years Urban/Rural Distribution : 56% to 44% Ethnic Distribution : Croat: 89.6%; Serb: 4.5%; Bosnian: 0.5%; Muslim: 0.4%; Italian: 0.4%; Hungarian: 0.4%; Slovenian: 0.3%; Albanian: 0.3%; Montenegran: 0.3%; Czech: 0.2%; Roma: 0.2%; others: 3.2% (...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...1 Other 1990 2 All women 34,516 59.3 29.5 12.6 28.5 1.4 2.8 17.7 2.7 4.8 Age 15–19 2,623 31.5 0.0 0.0 52.0 0.0 0.0 44.0 1.0 3.0 15–17 1,165 24.3 0.0 0.0 41.1 0.0 0.0 51.9 2.2 4.7 18–19 1,458 41.2 0.0 0.0 60.7 0.0 0.0 37.6 0.0 1.7 20–24 5,065 55.3 8.0 1.8 55.4 0.8 0.6 25.3 2.8 5.3 25–29 6,385 60.0 17.4 5.0 47.3 0.4 2.3 19.0 2.7 5.9 30–34 7,344 66.2 32.7 13.0 23.9 0.9 4.7 15.9 3.5 5.4 35–39 7,138 70.6 44.2 19.8 10.6 3.3 3.3 10.3 3.4 5.2 40–44 5,962 66.9 52.0 26.5 2.2 1.8 3.8 9.2 1.6 2.9 Race and Origin Hispanic 2,856 52.2 33.1 6.4 31.4 1.9 1.5 17.1 3.7 5.1...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,515 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Romagna, and 8.1 in Lazio, against 0.6 in the region of Molise and 1.2 in the Basilicata. In 1997 , women constituted 23.2% of the cases. Table 1 Annual Distribution of New Cases of AIDS and Mortality Rate Year of Diagnosis New Cases Mortality Rate 1982 1 0.0% 1983 8 87.5% 1984 37 100.0% 1985 198 93.9% 1986 457 93.4% 1987 1,029 93.0% 1988 1,773 90.4% 1989 2,480 90.8% 1990 3,135 89.1% 1991 3,826 88.7% 1992 4,261 85.6% 1993 4,818 77.6% 1994 5,521 72.7% 1995 5,654 56.9% 1996 4,993 36.7% 1997 3,728 20.7% 1998 (to 30 September 1998 ) 1,430 13.6% Total 42,899...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,020 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to explain the delay of nuptials. In 1986 , the mean age for men's first marriage was 27.3 years; for women, it was 24.8. The decline in the number of births has been very important; the index of fecundity has decreased from 2.0 in 1970 to 1.4 in 1988 . In 1991 , 1.3 children were born per woman, well below the replacement level of 2.1. The composition of the family structure has also suffered changes. The familia troncal (with several generations of the same family sharing the same dwelling), which was traditional in the rural environment, shows clear...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,972 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as possible. Support for HIV/AIDS/STD programs needs to be expanded and focused on high-risk groups. [The estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS on January 1, 2002 , were: Adults ages 15–49: 4,800 (rate: < 0.1%) Women ages 15–49: 1,400 Children ages 0–15: 550 [An estimated 250 adults and children died of AIDS during 2001 . [At the end of 2001 , an estimated 2,000 Sri Lankan children under age 15 were living without one or both parents who had died of AIDS. ( End of update by the Editors )] 11. Sexual Dysfunctions, Counseling, and...

Philippines

Philippines   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
23,700 words
Illustration(s):
1

...sex (non-condom use during the last sex with a non-regular sex partner) was reported by 75% of men who had sex with men and 34% of female sex workers. [The estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS on January 1, 2002 , were: Adults ages 15–49: 9,400 (rate: 0.1%) Women ages 15–49: 2,500 Children ages 0–15: < 10 [An estimated 720 adults and children died of AIDS during 2001 . [At the end of 2001 , an estimated 4,100 Filipino children under age 15 were living without one or both parents who had died of AIDS. ( End of update by the...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...8%; Kurd: 7%; Arab: 3%; Lur, Baloch, and Turkman: 2% each; other: 1% Religious Distribution : Shi'a Muslim: 89%; Sunni Muslim: 10%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i: 1% Birth Rate : 17.54 births per 1,000 population Death Rate : 5.39 per 1,000 population Infant Mortality Rate : 28.07 deaths per 1,000 live births Net Migration Rate : −4.46 migrant(s) per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate : 2.01 children born per woman Population Growth Rate : 0.77% HIV/AIDS ( 1999 est.): Adult prevalence : < 0.01%; Persons living with HIV/AIDS : 3,473 reported...

India

India   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the next decade (see Table 1). Analysts at the meeting predicted famines, civil war, economic reversals, and a collapse of social and political institutions in these countries by 2010 ( Garrett 2002 ). Table 1 Leaders in an Expanding Pandemic: Current and Projected HIV/AIDS-Infected Adults Current Number Infected 2010 Government Data (millions) Expert Estimates (millions) Expert Estimates (millions) India 4.0 5 to 8 20 to 25 Nigeria 3.5 4 to 6 10 to 15 Ethiopia 2.7 3 to 5 7 to 10 China 0.80 1 to 2 10 to 15 Russia 0.18 1 to 2 5 to 8 [The head of India's...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
30,636 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of social and political institutions in Nigeria, Russia, China, India, and Ethiopia by 2010 (see Table 1; Garrett 2002 ). Table 1 Leaders in an Expanding Pandemic: Current and Projected HIV/AIDS-Infected Adults Current Number Infected 2010 Government Data (millions) Expert Estimates (millions) Expert Estimates (millions) India 4.0 5 to 8 20 to 25 Nigeria 3.5 4 to 6 10 to 15 Ethiopia 2.7 3 to 5 7 to 10 China 0.80 1 to 2 10 to 15 Russia 0.18 1 to 2 5 to 8 [Nigeria and Ethiopia are pivotal to the future of Africa, because of their large populations and...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,557 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma (Gypsies): 9.3%; naturalized: 2% Religious Distribution : Roman Catholic: 78%; Protestant: 5%; Muslim and other: 17% Birth Rate : 9.58 births per 1,000 population Death Rate : 9.73 per 1,000 population Infant Mortality Rate : 4.39 deaths per 1,000 live births Net Migration Rate : 2.45 migrant(s) per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate : 1.4 children born per woman Population Growth Rate : 0.23% HIV/AIDS ( 2001 est.): Adult prevalence : 0.1%; Persons living with HIV/AIDS : 843; Deaths : < 100. (For additional...

Social Media

Social Media   Reference library

Arthur Lizie

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...There is little to no opportunity for feedback from receiver to sender (although newspapers have long featured letters to the editor) and no means for receiver-to-receiver information exchange. Social media, enabled by “new media” interactive technology features of the so-called Web 2.0 and wireless communication, change all this, enabling inexpensive and easy-to-use public feedback from receiver to sender; one-to-one information flow from sender to receiver; and public forums for receiver-to-receiver information exchange. As such, social media participants are...

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