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Web 1.0/Web 2.0

Web 1.0/Web 2.0   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Web 1.0/Web 2.0 . The terms Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are typically used to compare different stages in the development of the World Wide Web (invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee). As the numbers suggest, Web 1.0 is used to refer to the first stage in the development of the web, whereas Web 2.0 (a term coined in 1999 ) denotes a later stage, which became prominent in the mid-2000s. At the heart of the comparison between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is a perceived shift with respect to the web’s interactivity. Web 1.0 is seen as a read-only, comparatively...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2,782,500 speakers in the highland regions and lowland except around Apolo. Dialects are Sucre, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca. May be intelligible with Chilean Quechua and Northwest Jujuy Quechua in Argentina. In Argentina: 850,000 speakers in Buenos Aires, some working on docks. Some speakers also in Salta Province. Quechua, Southern Pastaza: also called Inga. 1,000 speakers in Peru, the northern jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga Rivers, and along the Urituyacu. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...documents (Web page files) with arbitrary text is a CFL. An HTML document (with arbitrary text content) has this sort of structure: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> Jane Doe's Home Page </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1> Jane Doe </H1> <H2> Home Page </H2> <P> <CENTER> <IMG src=“jane.jpg”> </CENTER> </P> </BODY> </HTML> The expression <HTML> must be followed by </HTML>, <HEAD> must be followed by </HEAD>, and so on, in the same pattern as matched parentheses. Thus, recognizing that a string belongs to a certain CFL is one of the tasks performed by a Web browser. The CFLs...

Parsing

Parsing   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,504 words
Illustration(s):
5

...that have to be held in memory, thereby delaying immediate interpretation. Examples of such structures, shown in Figure 2, are wh-dependencies (2.1), relative clauses (2.2), and centerembedded structures (2.3). Figure 2. Long-Distance Structural Dependencies Rapid and accurate parsing of unambiguous word sequences, as in (1) below, depends on efficient access to grammatical knowledge. In the parsing of ambiguous word sequences (2), in contrast, successful grammatical analysis is not enough, because it may provide two or more alternative structures for...

Acquisition of Language

Acquisition of Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
14,519 words

...first hundred words, they may over-extend up to 40% of them. Under-extensions and overlaps are harder to document; however, they may be even more pervasive in children's meanings, during a longer period, than over-extensions. The latter become rare by the age of 2;0 (i.e. 2 years, 0 months) to 2;6. Most observations about early meanings have come from diary studies of language production; however, researchers have also examined some sources of children's hypotheses about word-meanings by looking systematically at how children understand words, as well as...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Hobbs, Jerry R. , and Robert C. Moore , eds. 1985. Formal theories of the commonsense world . Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. Hobbs, Jerry R. , Mark E. Stickel , Douglas E. Appelt , and Paul Martin . 1993. Interpretation as abduction . Artificial Intelligence 63:12.69–142. Joshi, Aravind , Bonnie L. Webber , and Ivan Sag , eds. 1981. Elements of discourse understanding . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kamp, Hans , and Uve Reyle . 1993. From discourse to logic: Introduction to model-theoretic semantics of natural language, formal logic and discourse...

Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
11,108 words

...is related to factors like ‘preceding sound segment is a vowel’, ‘subject type is a Full NP’, ‘speaker is female’, or ‘style is formal’, using data on rule applications in various environments. These weightings range between 0 and 1. The closer these numbers are to 1, the more highly favoring the effect is; the closer they are to 0, the more disfavoring the effect is. For example, in the variation between [ŋ] and [n], a factor weight of .75 for [ŋ] would indicate that there is a very strong probability for [ŋ] in the environment in question (perhaps a...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...in an Electronic Age . New York, 1988. Claims that informal conversational structure has replaced formal argument in televised political exchanges. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . 2d ed. Baltimore, 1977. Argues that the linear arrangement of individual literary texts will be replaced by continuous webs of text. Larsen, Richard . “ Toward a Linear Rhetoric of the Essay. ” College Composition and Communication 22 (1971), pp. 140–146. An application of speech act theory to arrangement,...

Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

World-Wide Web

World-Wide Web   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...World-Wide Web ( WWW , the Web ) . A global electronic system for organizing, making available and accessing documents on the internet using a hypertext system. See web 1.0/web 2.0 . ...

Wikipedia

Wikipedia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the English Wikipedia is that there is no single preferred variety of English and ‘an article on a topic that has strong ties to a particular English-speaking nation uses the appropriate variety of English for that nation’ (Wikipedia). See digital writing ; hypertext ; web 1.0/web 2.0 . ...

Print and Printing

Print and Printing   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,234 words

...in digital technology, including the internet ; web 2.0 , and new file formats, especially PDF (portable document format) and hypertext , have radically changed the print industry. Nature and impact A printed book not only involves a different technology from a manuscript, but results in a different product. Whereas manuscripts were copied in very small quantities, early books were printed in editions that averaged 250 to 1,250 copies. In the late 20c, however, an academic book might have 1,500 copies and a best-selling popular paperback a first...

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