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Wars of the Roses

(1455–85) A protracted struggle for the throne of England, lasting for 30 years of sporadic fighting. These civil wars grew out of the bitter rivalry between two aspirants to the ...

Wars of the Roses

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The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
87 words

... of the Roses A struggle for power between the rival aristocratic factions headed by the houses of Lancaster and York, both of which descended from Edward III ( r. 1327–77 ) and therefore claimed rights to the throne. Several battles were fought between 1455 and 1461 , notably those at St Albans, Blore Heath, Northampton, Wakefield, Mortimer's Cross, and Towton. The Yorkist victory at Towton led to the crowning of Edward IV as King of England in 1461 . See Charles Ross , The Wars of the Roses ...

Roses, Wars of the

Roses, Wars of the (1455–85)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
159 words

..., Wars of the ( 1455–85 ) English dynastic civil wars. They are named after the badges of the rival royal Houses of York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose). Both Houses descended from Edward III . Richard, Duke of York, challenged the Lancastrian King Henry VI , and gained brief ascendancy after the Battle of St Albans ( 1455 ). The Lancastrians recovered control, but in 1460 Richard, supported by the powerful Earl of Warwick , forced Henry to recognize him as his heir. Richard was killed months later, but the Yorkist victory at Towton ( 1461 ) put...

Wars of the Roses

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The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
63 words

... of the Roses . A struggle for power between the rival aristocratic factions headed by the houses of Lancaster and York, both of which descended from Edward III ( 1327–77 ) and therefore claimed rights to the throne. Several battles were fought between 1455 and 1461 . The Yorkist victory at Towton led to the crowning of Edward IV as king of England in 1461...

Roses, Wars of the

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
391 words

..., Wars of the The name is now given to the sequence of plots, rebellions, and battles that took place between 1455 and 1487 . They are so called because of the notion that, fought between the dynasties of Lancaster and York, Lancaster was represented by a red rose, York by a white. In fact the idea of the warring roses was invented by Henry VII after he seized the throne in 1485 . While the actual phrase ‘Wars of the Roses’ did not appear until the 19th cent., the idea of the warring roses was rooted in Tudor propaganda. There were three distinct...

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Anthony James Pollard

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
681 words

...of the red and white roses, bringing peace and prosperity after the war and ruin of the preceding decades. While the actual phrase ‘Wars of the Roses’ did not appear until the 19th cent., the idea of the warring roses was rooted in Tudor propaganda. There were three distinct phases of civil war: between 1455 and 1464 ; 1469 and 1471 ; and 1483 and 1487 . In the first two fighting for the control of royal government led to outright war for possession of the crown; the third was dynastic from the start. There was also a strong element of rivalry for...

Roses, Wars of the

Roses, Wars of the (1455–85)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
292 words

..., Wars of the ( 1455–85 ) The 15th-century dynastic struggles between the houses of *York and *Lancaster have been identified since the beginning of the 16th century by their houses’ respective emblems of red and white roses. *Henry VI , great-grandson of *John of Gaunt , duke of *Lancaster and son of *Edward III , succeeded his father *Henry V as undoubted and unchallenged heir. However, his patent incompetence, leading to disaster in *France and rebellion and *baronial faction at home, stimulated bitter rivalries between the court party,...

Roses, Wars of the

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The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., Wars of the Once applied to the whole of the 15th century, the name is now given to the sequence of plots, rebellions, and battles that took place between 1455 and 1487 . They are so called because of the notion that, being fought between the dynasties of Lancaster and York, Lancaster was represented by a red rose, York by a white. The identification of the roses with the rival dynasties first became prominent in the reign of Henry VII . He adopted the red rose as one of his badges ; his wife Elizabeth of York the white. The idea of the warring...

Roses, Wars of the

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
299 words

..., Wars of the ( 1455–85 ) A protracted struggle for the throne of England, lasting for 30 years of sporadic fighting. These civil wars grew out of the bitter rivalry between two aspirants to the throne—Edmund Beaufort (1406–55), Duke of Somerset, of the House of Lancaster (whose badge was a red rose), and Richard, 3rd Duke of York (whose badge was a white rose); the former was a close supporter of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou , while Richard of York became their opponent. In 1455 Richard gained power by winning the first Battle of St Albans; a...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,088 words
Illustration(s):
1

...John . The Wars of the Roses: Peace and Conflict in Fifteenth-Century England . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981. Goodman, Anthony . The Wars of the Roses: Military Activity and English Society, 1452–97 . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981. Haigh, Philip A. The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses . Stroud, U.K.: Sutton, 1995. Hammond, P. W. The Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury . Stroud, U.K.: Sutton, 1993. Hicks, Michael . The Wars of the Roses, 1455–1485 . New York: Routledge, 2003. Jones, Michael K. Bosworth 1485: Psychology of a Battle...

Wars of the Roses

Wars of the Roses (c.1455–87)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
277 words

... of the Roses ( c. 1455–87 ), modern name for the civil war between the English houses of Lancaster and York, commencing under Henry VI ( 1421–61 , 1470–1 ); continuing under the Yorkist kings Edward IV ( 1461–70 , 1471–83 ), Edward V ( 1483 ), and Richard III ( 1483–5 ); and petering out after the accession of Henry VII ( 1485–1509 ). Ireland's role in the wars chiefly reflected its strategic importance as a springboard for invading England. It also supplied experienced troops—English ‘bills and bows’ (troops armed with the battleaxe with long...

Wars of the Roses, The

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
54 words

... of the Roses, The The collective title given to John Barton and Peter Hall 's three-part adaptation of Shakespeare 's history cycle of Henry VI , Parts 1, 2, and 3, and Richard III , first performed at Stratford in 1963 , directed by Peter Hall. Barton composed about 1,400 lines of...

Wars of the Roses, The

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
54 words

... of the Roses, The The collective title given to John Barton and Peter Hall 's three-part adaptation of Shakespeare 's history cycle of Henry VI , Parts 1, 2, and 3, and Richard III , first performed at Stratford in 1963 , directed by Peter Hall. Barton composed about 1,400 lines of...

Wars of the Roses, The

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An A-Z Guide to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... of the Roses, The John Barton 's adaptation of 1, 2 and 3 Henry VI and Richard III , acted at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1963 in three parts, as Henry VI , and Richard III . It was also televised. The plays were directed by Barton and Peter Hall . Also the name given to the English Shakespeare Company 's sequence of history plays ( 1986 , filmed 1989 ), which included both the first and second...

Wars of the Roses

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The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... of the Roses the 15th-century English civil wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster, represented by white and red roses respectively, during the reigns of Henry VI , Edward IV , and Richard III . The struggle was largely ended in 1485 by the defeat and death of the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and the accession of the Lancastrian Henry Tudor ( Henry VII ), who united the two houses by marrying Elizabeth , daughter of Edward IV...

Wars of the Roses

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Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... of the Roses . The name by which the series of 15th-century civil wars ( c. 1455–87 ) between the houses of Lancaster and York is known. Old English families in Ireland aligned themselves with one or other side, notably the Fitzgerald Earls of Desmond and Kildare (who were Yorkists) and the Earl of Ormond (a Lancastrian). The popularity of the Yorkist cause in Ireland was evidenced by support for the invasion of England by Richard Plantagenet , Duke of York , in 1460 , and in 1487 for the invasion led by Lambert Simnel ; the pretender Perkin ...

Roses, Wars of the

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The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
10 words
Roses, Wars of the

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Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
10 words
Roses, Wars of the

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The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
11 words
Roses, Wars of the

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Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
11 words
Wars of the Roses

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New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
96 words

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