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War of 1812

(1812–15) A war between Britain and the USA. US frustration at the trade restrictions imposed by Britain in retaliation for Napoleon's Continental System, together with a desire ...

War of 1812

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
104 words

... of 1812 The last conflict between Britain and the USA began when the British blockade of Napoleonic Europe and naval impressment of American sailors inflamed relations. Western American politicians campaigned for conquest of Canada to open land for settlement and eliminate Indian resistance. Congress declared war on 16 June 1812 . The Americans failed to overrun Canada, despite battles including Queenston Heights ( 1812 ). The British retaliated for the destruction of York (later Toronto) in April 1813 by occupying Washington in August 1814 and burning...

War of 1812

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Ged Martin

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
168 words

... of 1812 . The last conflict between Britain and the USA began when the British blockade of Napoleonic Europe and naval impressment of American sailors inflamed relations. Western American politicians campaigned for conquest of Canada to open land for settlement and eliminate Indian resistance. Congress declared war on 16 June 1812 —four days after Castlereagh had announced relaxation of the blockade. The Americans failed to overrun Canada, despite battles including Queenston Heights ( 1812 ), Chrysler’s Farm ( 1813 ), Lundy’s Lane, and Chippewa ( 1814 )....

War of 1812

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,349 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the importance of the War of 1812 to the development and growth of the American Republic. Forester, C. S. The Age of Fighting Sail: The Story of the Naval War of 1812. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956. A classic work detailing the naval conflict on the Great Lakes and the oceans during the conflict. Heidler, David Stephen . Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 . Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1997. Without question, one of the main reference works on the war of 1812, especially in light of the growing recent historiography. Hickey, Donald R. Don't Give...

War of 1812

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
187 words

... of 1812 ( 1812–15 ) Conflict between the USA and Britain. The main source of friction was British maritime policy in the Napoleonic Wars , including the impressment of sailors from US vessels and the interception of US merchant ships. Border disputes with Canada also contributed. In 1811 , President James Madison reimposed the Nonintercourse Act on trade with the British. The USA was ill-prepared for war and an invasion of Canada failed. Stephen Decatur restored US pride. Victory on Lake Erie ( September 1813 ) enabled US forces, led by William H. ...

War of 1812

War of 1812 (1812–15)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
322 words

... of 1812 ( 1812–15 ) A war between Britain and the USA. US frustration at the trade restrictions imposed by Britain in retaliation for Napoleon’s Continental System , together with a desire to remove British and Canadian obstacles to US westward expansion, led the US Congress to declare war on Britain (June 1812). The USA–British North American (Canadian) border was the main theatre of war. In July, the US General, William Hull, advanced into Upper Canada, but in early August withdrew to Detroit, which was soon after captured by Major‐General Isaac Brock....

War of 1812

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Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,739 words
Illustration(s):
1

...helped stave off the conquest of Spanish Florida. Away from the battlefields African Americans gained and lost during the War of 1812 . By disrupting commerce, the War of 1812 gave African Americans a brief respite from the westward expansion of cotton and slavery. Similarly, the war stalled colonization plans to ship free blacks out of the country. On the other hand, slaves and free blacks alike came under suspicion of being disloyal. In the summer of 1812 Baltimore rioters burned the homes of free blacks suspected of British sympathies. In 1813 ...

War of 1812

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William Earl Weeks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...U.S. ; Neutrality ; New Orleans, Battle of ; Trade and Tariffs and U.S. Diplomacy and War ; and Washington, George .] Bibliography Black, Jeremy . The War of 1812 in the Age of Napoleon . Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009. Borneman, Walter R. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation . New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Hickey, Donald R. Don’t Give Up the Ship!: Myths of the War of 1812 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006. Latimer, Jon . 1812: War with America . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007. William Earl...

War of 1812.

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William Earl Weeks

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,072 words

...until the last pensioner (the dependent of a veteran) died in 1946 . See also Bank of the United States, First and Second ; Early Republic, Era of the Expansionism ; Foreign Relations: U.S. Relations with Europe ; Ghent, Treaty of ; Indian History and Culture: From 1800 to 1900 ; Perry, Oliver Hazard and Matthew ; Quasi-War with France . Julius Pratt , Expansionists of 1812 , 1925. Roger H. Brown , The Republic in Peril: 1812 , 1964. Reginald Horsman , The War of 1812 , 1964. J.C.A. Stagg , Mr. Madison's War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the...

War of 1812

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The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
518 words

...1814 ). Not a single aim of the war was attained, and the American commissioners did not even feel strong enough to demand the abandonment of impressment or to ask for more than the surrender of territory gained by Great Britain during the war. Jackson 's victory at New Orleans ( Jan. 8, 1815 ) occurred before he was notified of the treaty, and this last American success did much to restore national confidence. Contemporary novels about the war include James K. Paulding 's Diverting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan ( 1812 ), an attack on British...

War of 1812

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The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...them, and fostered a strategy of invasion. To the extent that the British were able to carry the war to the Americans, it was by sea; thus, especially after the summer of 1814 , the theater of operations expanded to include the mid‐Atlantic coast and the American territories around the Gulf of Mexico. For this reason, a war that commenced as an invasion of Canada in 1812 concluded in a defense of the city of New Orleans in the early months of 1815 . Over the summer and fall of 1812 , U.S. forces, under the commands of Brigs. Gen. William Hull , ...

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The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... of 1812 ( 1812–15 ) Often called the “second war of independence” because it, too, was fought against Great Britain, this war yielded no territorial gain, but it did carry sharp political and economic ramifications. Its origins were partly political but primarily economic. During the Napoleonic Wars ( 1793–1801 , 1803–15 ), Great Britain impressed a considerable number of American seamen into the Royal Navy, claiming they were either deserters or British subjects and refusing to recognize their naturalized status. Equally offensive to U.S. sovereignty and...

War of 1812

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The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of 1812 Known at the time as ‘Madison's war’ after the US president who prosecuted it so badly. This war was a failed attempt by the young USA to seize Canada while Britain was engaged fighting Napoleon in Europe. It might better have been called ‘the Republicans' war’, for it was this party, and in particular the ‘war hawks’ who dominated the House of Representatives thanks to the leadership of Henry Clay of Kentucky, that most wanted it. It was remarkable in that the alleged reason for the war, the British Orders in Council designed to counter Napoleon's...

War of 1812

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The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,221 words

... of 1812 . A conflict between Great Britain and the United States, the war revolved around maritime rights as well as control of the Old Northwest. In 1806 , Napoleon closed western Europe off to British goods; in return British orders in council ( 1807 ) imposed a naval blockade on France, prohibiting all ships—including American vessels—from trading with that country. Although the United States was officially not involved in the European conflict, many of its ships were boarded, and many sailors seized in the North Atlantic. American resentment also grew...

War of 1812, the

War of 1812, the   Reference library

David Hildebrand

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
929 words

... of 1812, the . During the era of war between Great Britain and the United States, 1812–15 , music played an important expressive role. Largely through parodies of preexisting songs, the stories of great naval battles, of heroes, of politics, and of the general glory of the American navy found their way into print. These songs circulated mostly in songsters, broadsides, and newspapers, as lyrics only, but also in sheet music form. While some were newly composed, most songs called on familiar tunes of the era, including “Yankee Doodle,” “Derry Down,” “Heart of...

War of 1812

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New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
94 words
War of 1812

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Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
94 words
War of 1812

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The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
70 words
War of 1812

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Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
71 words
War of 1812

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The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
88 words
War of 1812

War of 1812  

(1812–15)A war between Britain and the USA. US frustration at the trade restrictions imposed by Britain in retaliation for Napoleon's Continental System, together with a desire to remove British and ...

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