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War Scroll

Subject: Religion

One of the Dead Sea scrolls found near Qumran. The War Scroll is an apocalyptic work describing the conflict at the end of time between the Sons of Light and the Sons of Darkness. ...

War Scroll

War Scroll   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
36 words

... Scroll . One of the Dead Sea scrolls found near Qumran . The War Scroll is an apocalyptic work describing the conflict at the end of time between the Sons of Light and the Sons of...

WAR SCROLL

WAR SCROLL   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
382 words

...The War Scroll from Qumran: Its Structure and History, Biblica et Orientalia 32 (Rome, 1977). Philip Davies , “War Scroll,” in The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls , vol. 2 (New York, 2000), pp. 965–968. Jean Duhaime , “ The ‘War Scroll’ from Qumran and the Greco-Roman Tactical Treatises ,” Revue de Qûmran 12.1–4 (1988): 133–151. Jean Duhaime , “War Scroll” and “War Scroll-Like Fragments,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, English, and Greek Texts with English Translations , vol. 2 (Tübingen/Louisville, 1995), pp. 80–203. Jean Duhaime , The War...

War Scroll

War Scroll   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
704 words

...Sea Scrolls .] Bibliography Baillet, Maurice . Qumrân grotte 4 , vol. 3, 4Q482–4Q520 . Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, vol. 7. Oxford, 1982. See pages 45–54 and 69–72 for, according to Baillet, fragments of a shorter recension of the War Scroll (4QM a–g[?] ). Barthélemy, Dominique , and J. T. Milik . Qumrân Cave 1 . Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, vol. 1. Oxford, 1955. Davies, Philip R. 1QM, the War Scroll from Qumran: Its Structure and History . Rome, 1977. Detailed study of the sources and composition of 1QM. Duhaime, Jean . “The War Scroll from...

War Scroll

War Scroll  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
One of the Dead Sea scrolls found near Qumran. The War Scroll is an apocalyptic work describing the conflict at the end of time between the Sons of Light and the Sons of Darkness.[...]
3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...either hang from the middle of the lower edge or be added in a note at the end of the text (colophon), where it would be equally accessible, since scrolls were generally not rewound for the convenience of the next reader. The scroll could then be covered with fabric or leather and stored in a bucket, case, or on shelves. *Engraving of a lost piece of Roman sculpture ( c .100 ad ) of rolled and ticketed *scrolls from Neumagen, near Treves, in C. Browerus and J. Masenius, Antiquitatum et Annalium Trevirensium Libri XXV (Lyons, 1670). The Bodleian Library,...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

... problems. Although its use began later, *silk is mostly contemporaneous with bamboo and wood as an important material for pre-paper MS books. By the early Warring States period ( 403–221 bc ), the philosopher Mozi ( fl . 400 bc ) could state that texts written on bamboo and silk or engraved on metal and stone were thus transmitted for posterity. Silk books also took the form of *scrolls , and the continuous weaving of textiles allowed for drawings or diagrams accompanying the text. The early Han tomb at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province, contained...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the Sŏkkat’ap (Sakyamuni Pagoda) at Pulguksa (Pulguk Temple), Kyŏngju. This text was translated into Chinese in 704 , and the temple built in 751 ; thus, the Dharani was printed and then enclosed inside the pagoda, probably to mark the temple’s consecration. This small paper *scroll , measuring 6.5 × 648 cm, was found in a container for Buddhist relics. Its measurements are approximate, since the early sections are in a poor state of conservation. Each of its twelve *sheets of paper contains between 55 and 63 columns of characters; each column has seven to...

The Winter’s Tale

The Winter’s Tale   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,428 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Before Leontes, Hermione is formally accused of treasonous adultery with Polixenes: she eloquently denies the charge, and refers her innocence to the oracle. Cleomenes and Dion swear they have faithfully brought the oracle’s written declaration, sealed and unread. Unsealed, the scroll declares that Hermione is innocent and her daughter truly begotten, and adds that ‘the King shall live without an heir if that which is lost be not found’. Leontes at first refuses to believe this, but after a messenger brings the news that Mamillius has died, on which Hermione...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...scholars to understand its antecedents, the Aboriginal systems of cultural transmission described by European newcomers. These scholars have observed that Native peoples created pictorial records of hunts, warfare, and spiritual life on rock by painting and carving, drew on bark scrolls and animal hides, and kept tallies on wooden slabs and notched sticks. Native allies of the French helped explorers such as Samuel de Champlain to draft maps. On the Pacific shore, cedar totem poles carved with crests announced the ancestry of family or clan, while in eastern...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...of the 5 th century, and although the dates and details given in Japanese annals are not reliable, it seems clear that books from China were increasingly valued as gifts in Japan. These would have been Confucian and Buddhist texts, and would have taken the form of rolls or *scrolls rather than bound books. Imported works needed to be copied to become accessible, and this was particularly important in the case of Buddhist texts once Buddhism took root in Japan. By the 7 th century, therefore, shakyō , or sutra copying, was an organized activity, both as a...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Torah (Law, also meaning ‘instruction’, ‘teaching’), which includes the so-called Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Scholars refer to the Pentateuch as the Hexateuch, which is derived from the Greek term meaning ‘five scrolls’ (five books plus Joshua). The Torah represented God’s gift to the people of Israel. This gift was, however, conditional upon the people’s acceptance of the divine commandments and their obedience to them as the chosen people. God’s scriptural gift to his chosen people was given...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...documents written on paper. *Ink-squeeze rubbing s were made to provide multiple paper copies of the Confucian texts that were cut on stone and displayed in temples for public reading. A sacred Buddhist text, the *Diamond Sutra ( 868 ), a *scroll made up of strips of paper pasted together ( see scroll binding ), is the earliest datable instance of the use of engraved relief wood blocks to print many copies of an extensive text and an image with *ink . The technique of *woodblock printing that finally evolved to make printed books required...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...Jews and Christians with a scriptural tradition in which some Arabs participated. Thus, book culture was not completely alien to pre-Islamic Arabs, even though they have left no surviving physical books. The form of the book was at this stage in a state of transition, from the *scroll to the *codex . By the time the Arabs felt an imperative need to create enduring but portable written texts, in the 7 th century, the codex had already emerged as the norm, and it therefore became the prime vehicle for their emerging culture of the book. This need, and its...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...contradictory, and the books that emerged around the Mediterranean show debts to both cultures. A crucial legacy of early Christianity in a Roman context was the invention and adoption of the *codex format. Books in the ancient world had mostly been produced on continuous *scrolls , but the codex was ideal for texts that needed constant consultation at different places, especially law and the Bible. Biblical texts, such as *gospel books , *psalters , and the letters of St Paul, are among the most fundamental of early medieval MSS, for they were used in...

War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness

War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Known also as the War Scroll (1QM), this Hebrew manuscript was among those scrolls from Qumran Cave 1 acquired by the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and first published (posthumously) by Eleazar ...
First Jewish Revolt

First Jewish Revolt  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The war that broke out in Judea in 66 ce was preceded by 130 years of active resistance against the Roman administration (beginning with Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem in 63 ...
Palestine Archaeological Museum

Palestine Archaeological Museum  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Following the cessation of hostilities after World War I and the establishment of the British Mandate in Palestine, the pace of archaeological activity in the Middle East increased at a ...
Kittim

Kittim  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A son of Javan (Gen. 10: 4), whose supposed descendants settled in Cyprus and became sea traders (Num. 24: 24). In the Dead Sea scrolls the Chaldeans (Kittim) are named as the last of the oppressing ...
Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A collection of Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts, the first of which were found in 1947 by shepherds in a cave near the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. They belonged to the library of the Jewish ...
gingerbread

gingerbread  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The gilded scroll work and carving with which the hulls of large ships, particularly men-of-war and East Indiamen of the 15th to 18th centuries, were decorated. ‘To take some of the gilt off the ...

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