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Volga Tatars

Subject: Religion

The Muslim communities inhabiting a large portion of eastern Russia, roughly between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains, are divided into two groups: Tatars and Bashkirs. Tatars ...

Volga Tatars

Volga Tatars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Tatars, and Astrakhan Tatars are generally understood to make up the “Volga Tatars,” whereas the Siberian Tatars form a historically and culturally distinct Muslim community. Substantial diaspora populations of Volga Tatars are found in major cities throughout Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and in the People's Republic of China and Turkey. The overall population of Volga Tatars is approximately 6 million. The territory inhabited by the Volga Tatars, centered at the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers, has had a Muslim presence since the ancestors of the Volga...

Volga Tatars

Volga Tatars  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Muslim communities inhabiting a large portion of eastern Russia, roughly between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains, are divided into two groups: Tatars and Bashkirs. Tatars comprise several ...
river Volga

river Volga  

[Finnic: Rha; Turko-Tataric: Itil, Atel, Idel]Largest river in Europe, the single most important river in Russian history. The Volga basin covers one-third of European Russia. What the river Dnieper ...
Kazan

Kazan  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Port on the River Volga, e European Russia; capital of the Tatarstan. Founded in the 13th century, Kazan became the capital of the Tatar khanate (1438). Conquered by Ivan IV ...
river Don

river Don  

[Greek: Tanais]In ancient times a trade route between Greek colonies on the Black Sea and the upper and middle river Volga regions. The Don region was occupied sequentially by ...
Ayaz Ishaki

Ayaz Ishaki  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1954)Tatar political activist and writer who promoted Turkic unity and national autonomy for the Volga-Ural Muslims. His writings reflected the ideals of enlightenment, justice, and economic and ...
Sultan Mir Said Galiyev

Sultan Mir Said Galiyev  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. ca. 1930)Tatar Muslim Communist intellectual from Volga who reinterpreted Communism for the Muslim context during the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Understood Communism as a practical ...
Russia

Russia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Russia's president is determined to modernize this vast country but is also crushing its democracyRussia, which is officially the Russian Federation, is by far the world's largest country, spanning ...
Tatarstan

Tatarstan (Russia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Tatarstan , Russia ( Tatariya ) Formerly a province and now a republic meaning ‘Place of the Tatars’. Originally inhabited by Bulgars, the region was settled by the Mongols of the Golden Horde during the 13th century . It became a Tatar khanate before being absorbed into the Russian Empire in 1552 ; and in 1920 it became the (Volga) Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. The name ‘Tatar’ (for a time spelt Tartar) was applied fairly indiscriminately to any Mongol, Turkic, or other peoples who lived in what was called ...

Ishaki, Ayaz

Ishaki, Ayaz (1954)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
50 words

...Ishaki, Ayaz (d. 1954 ) Tatar political activist and writer who promoted Turkic unity and national autonomy for the Volga-Ural Muslims. His writings reflected the ideals of enlightenment, justice, and economic and political advancement associated with Jadidism (Islamic reformism). Composed numerous short stories, novels, and plays, and translated many historical...

Kazan

Kazan   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
46 words

...Port on the River Volga, e European Russia; capital of the Tatarstan . Founded in the 13th century, Kazan became the capital of the Tatar khanate ( 1438 ). Conquered by Ivan IV , it served as the e outpost of Russian colonization. Industries: electrical equipment. Pop. ( 2005 )...

Kazan’

Kazan’ (Tatarstan Republic/Russia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Kazan’ , Tatarstan Republic/Russia Founded in the late 13th century by the Tatars, the name may possibly be taken from the Turkish kazan ‘cauldron’, a reference to the strong currents in the River Kazanka. It was at one time located some 28 miles (45 km) up the Kazanka, but was transferred to a spot where that river meets the River Volga at the end of the 14th century . Having been the capital of the Tatar Kazan khanate, which was formed in 1436 from the Golden Horde, since 1445 , it was captured and annexed by the Russians in 1552...

Dungur

Dungur   Reference library

Helen M. Faller

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
88 words

...Dungur . Obsolete double-headed drum of Tatarstan. It was played by the Tatars of the Middle Volga region. It was cylindrical or oval, about 1 metre tall and 30 to 40 cm in diameter, and was played with the fingers and palms. Two silver coins were hung on the body. The nägrä , another Tatar double-headed drum, was of Central Asian origin. It was about 35 cm tall and 15 cm in diameter and was held on the player’s lap and played with the fingers and palms. Helen M. Faller ...

Volgograd

Volgograd (Russia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Volgograd , Russia ( Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad ) A province and a city with a name meaning ‘Town on the (River) Volga’. It was originally a fortress built in 1589 , its Tatar name meaning ‘Town on the (River) Tsaritsa’ from the Turkic sary su ‘Yellow River’ which was so-called because of the golden sands at this point on the banks of this tributary of the Volga. Although the name had nothing to do with tsar and the tsarist past, it was renamed in 1925 ‘Stalin’s Town’ after Joseph Stalin , chairman of the local military committee which had organized the...

river Don

river Don   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
112 words

...times a *trade route between Greek colonies on the *Black Sea and the upper and middle *river Volga regions. The Don region was occupied sequentially by Hunnic and Bulgar tribes (4th–7th centuries), the Khazars (7th–9th centuries), Pecheneg and *Magyar tribes (9th–11th centuries), the *Cumans (11th century), and finally the Mongol- *Tatar armies (13th century), when it became part of the lands of the *Golden Horde centred at Sarai on the Volga. The Don formed a major trade route between central *Rus’ and the Genoese colony, Tana, at its mouth...

river Volga

river Volga   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
320 words

...The middle Volga was still dominated by a variety of Finnic and Turko-Hunnic (Volga *Bulgar ) peoples. Nizhnii *Novgorod was established by Moscow to compete with *Tatar Kazan’, and it marked the eastern end of Russia until the 15th century. Ronald Wixman E. Bennigsen , ‘ Contribution à l’étude du commerce des fourrures Russes: La Route de la Volga avant l’invasion Mongole et le royaume des Bulghars ’, in Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique , 19/4 (1978), 385–400. A. Gieysztor , ‘ Les Marchés et les marchandises entre le Danube et la Volga aux VIII–XI...

Volga

Volga (Russia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Volga , Russia ( Ra, Itil ) A federal district and a river, the meaning of whose name is not known. It may be related to the modern Russian vlaga ‘moisture’ or ‘liquid’. The river was known by the ancient Greeks as the Ra which may have meant simply ‘river’. The lower and middle sections were known as Itil a thousand years ago and this name may come from the Tatar idel ‘big...

Galiyev, Sultan Mir Said

Galiyev, Sultan Mir Said (1930)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
108 words

...Galiyev, Sultan Mir Said (d. ca. 1930 ) Tatar Muslim Communist intellectual from Volga who reinterpreted Communism for the Muslim context during the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Understood Communism as a practical doctrine for organizing underground movements, educating and agitating the masses, articulating national rights, and gaining political support. Supported revolutionary national government as a necessary prerequisite to proletarian rule, deemphasizing the concept of class struggle. Declared all Muslims proletarians due to oppression suffered...

Ivan IV

Ivan IV (1530–84)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
108 words

...was crowned in 1547 and married Anastasia , a Romanov . At first an able and progressive ruler, reforming law and government, after his wife's death in 1560 , he became increasingly unbalanced, killing his own son in a rage. By annexing the Tatar states of Kazan and Astrakhan, he gained control of the Volga River. He established trade with w European states and began Russian expansion into Siberia. He established a personal dominion, the oprichnina , inside Russia. He also created a military force, the oprichniki , which he set against the...

Söyembikä

Söyembikä (c. 1516)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
789 words

...support of the non-Tatar peoples of the Volga basin and Tatars who resented the presence of Crimeans on their soil. In August 1551 a new pro-Muscovite government arrested both mother and son and sent them to Moscow. A year later Ivan the Terrible took Kazan. Exiled in Kasimov , Söyembikä was forced to marry Shah Ali, the pro-Russian khan of Kasimov, and separate herself from her son, who was baptized under the name of Alexander . Her son died in 1566 ; Söyembikä's date of death is still unknown, as is the site of her grave. Numerous Tatar traditions kept...

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