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Vitruvius

(fl. 1st century bc), Roman architect and military engineer. He wrote a comprehensive ten-volume treatise on architecture which includes matters such as acoustics and water ...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Roman architect whose work had a significant influence on Renaissance structures and buildings. Vitruvius defined the Vitruvian Man, as drawn by Leonardo da Vinci, as ideal proportions of the human body defined within...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius (70)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,464 words

... ( Marcus Vitruvius Pollio [?]; before 70 –after 15 bce ), Roman architect , engineer , and author . Our knowledge of Vitruvius comes almost exclusively from his own work, De architectura libri decem ( Ten Books on Architecture ), especially the ten prefaces, one for each book, that he addresses to Augustus . There the architect describes himself as elderly and reserved, grateful to his parents for an education that shows in his extensive, knowledgeable use of Greek words and Greek sources alongside his references to Roman builders and...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
46 words

... (active early 1st century ad ) Roman architect and engineer . His encyclopedic De Architectura (before ad 27 ) covers almost every aspect of ancient architecture, including town planning, types of buildings, and materials. It is the only work of its type to survive from the ancient...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
3,525 words

...by contemporary documents. Vitruvius has also been identified with L. Vitruvius Mamurra, possibly the Mamurra from Formia who was Julius Caesar’s chief engineer in Gaul . The name M. Vitruvius Mamurra has been found in a Roman inscription from Africa, and the nomen gentilicium Vitruvius occurs in Formia . Vitruvius or his literary executors may have dropped the cognomen Mamurra for good reasons: the contemporary poet Catullus had libelled Mamurra in a particularly scurrilous manner (e.g. Poems 29, 41, 43, 57, 94). Moreover, the...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Reference library

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
576 words

...have approved. Similar practical use is made of the mathematics of Archytas , Eratosthenes , Democritus , and Archimedes , and Vitruvius remains an important source for our knowledge of a great many early Greek scientists. (It was Vitruvius who preserved the famous story of Archimedes’ discovery in his bathtub of a way of detecting the adulteration of king Hieron II of Syracuse ’s golden crown (9, Pref. 9–12).) And so Vitruvius goes on, often employing the theories of the most anti-banausic Greek thinkers to elucidate his very practical subject. Astronomy...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
488 words

... ( Marcus Vitruvius Pollio ) was a Roman architect who had an immense influence in post-Classical times, particularly in the Renaissance. He is known to have worked from c .46 to 30 bc , and to have built the basilica of Fano (now destroyed) near Pesaro. His main claim to fame is that he composed a treatise on architecture in ten books, De architectura , which he dedicated to the Emperor Augustus. It is the only composition on architecture to survive from antiquity, and MS copies of it were known, for instance, to Alcuin at the court of Charlemagne....

Vitruvius

Vitruvius (fl. 1st century bc)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
45 words

... Vitruvius fl. 1st century bc Roman architect and military engineer Now these should be so carried out that account is taken of strength, utility, grace. On Architecture bk. 1, ch. 3, sect. 2; see Wotton strength , utility, grace strength, utility , grace strength, utility, ...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius (fl. 1st century bc)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
56 words

... Vitruvius fl. 1st century bc Roman architect and military engineer Haec autem ita fieri debent, ut habeatur ratio firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis. Now these should be so carried out that account is taken of strength, utility, grace. On Architecture bk. 1, ch. 3, sect. 2; see wotton strength , utility, grace strength, utility , grace strength, utility, ...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
118 words

... (first century bc ) Roman author of De Architectura , an architectural treatise in ten books. Little or nothing is known of his life beyond what is reported in De Architectura . He was a practising architect and military and civil engineer under Julius Caesar and Augustus . His treatise ( c. 31 bc , with later revisions) is of interest to theatre historians because book 5 includes a discussion of the siting, consolidation, and functional design of theatres in both the Roman and Greek style. The planimetric design prescribed by Vitruvius is...

Vitruvius

Vitruvius   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by contemporary documents. Vitruvius has also been identified by P. Thielscher (see Pauly–Wissowa, 1961 , pp. 427–89) with L. Vitruvius Mamurra, possibly the Mamurra from Formia who was Julius Caesar ’s chief engineer in Gaul. The name M. Vitruvius Mamurra has been found in a Roman inscription from Africa, and the nomen gentilicium Vitruvius occurs in Formia. Vitruvius or his literary executors may have dropped the cognomen Mamurra for good reasons: the contemporary poet Catullus had libelled Mamurra in a particularly scurrilous manner (e.g....

Vitrūvius

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Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
483 words

...on materials and methods of construction in 2 and 7, and on rules of proportion in 3 and 4, is of great value. Vitruvius' importance as an architect is very nearly matched by his significance as a historian of many different departments of ancient science and philosophy, ranging from mathematics to astronomy, meteorology, and medicine. Just as the Hippocratic doctors appreciated the importance of environment to good health, Vitruvius appreciated that in its general and most humane form, architecture included everything which touches on the physical and...

Vitruvius Britannicus

Vitruvius Britannicus   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
64 words

... Britannicus The publication in 1715 by Colen Campbell ( 1676–1729 ), under the sponsorship of the Earl of Burlington, of two volumes of plans and elevations of contemporary country houses in Britain, to inspire others to follow best practice. It signalled the beginning of the Palladian movement in Britain. Vitruvius was the greatest architect in ancient Rome. A further three volumes were subsequently...

Vitruvius Pollio

Vitruvius Pollio   Reference library

Denise Davidson Greaves

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
337 words

...subjects. In his discussion of theatre construction (v.3–9), Vitruvius comments on the importance of acoustical considerations in site selection as well as in the design of the structure itself. The site should neither produce an echo nor deaden the voice, and the ascending rows of seats must not obstruct the sound waves. A brief summary of Aritoxenian harmonic theory provides the background for a discussion of vases designed to resonate to various musical notes. According to Vitruvius, such vases served as acoustical enhancements in many theatres in...

Vitruvius Pollio

Vitruvius Pollio   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
102 words

... Pollio (active second half of 1st century bc ). Roman architect, the author of a treatise, De architectura , which is the only work of its kind to have survived from antiquity. It was well known in manuscript throughout the Middle Ages and the first printed edition appeared in Rome in 1486 . Since then it has been much edited and translated and for centuries was regarded as the authoritative voice on classical architecture. It is still a major source for the history of ancient art, for it contains much incidental information about Greek and Roman...

Vitruvius Britannicus

Vitruvius Britannicus   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
62 words

... Britannicus . The publication in 1715 by Colen Campbell , under the sponsorship of the Earl of Burlington, of two volumes of plans and elevations of contemporary country houses in Britain, to inspire others to follow best practice. It signalled the beginning of the Palladian movement in Britain. Vitruvius was the greatest architect in ancient Rome. A further three volumes were subsequently...

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus (46 bcad 25)   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
321 words

... Pollio, Marcus ( fl . 46 bc – ad 25 ) Roman architect and writer . Vitruvius wrote his treatise De Architectura early in the 1st century ad . It is the only work on architecture to survive from the ancient world, so has been copied and recopied since the Renaissance, inspiring the writing of numerous other treatises in emulation, notably by Alberti and Palladio . Marcus Vitruvius Pollio was of little consequence in his own day. He served under Julius Caesar in the African War of 46 bc and later in Spain as a military engineer....

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus (70–after 15)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
405 words

...in English (1791), translated by Newton and edited by his brother, James Newton (1748– c. 1804). However, a potted Vitruvius in English had been published (1692), but it was so abridged that its usefulness was limited. Newton’s edition was superseded by that of Gwilt (1826), although William Wilkins had published (1812) The Civil Architecture of Vitruvius , with commentaries, but it was incomplete. As an architect, Vitruvius designed ( c. 27 bc ) a basilica (destroyed) for Colonia Iulia Fanestris (modern Fano), a new town for army veterans....

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus (70–15bc)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
109 words

... Pollio, Marcus ( fl. 70–15 bc ), Roman author of a treatise in 10 books, De architectura , of which Book V deals with theatre construction, illustrated by diagrams. Discovered in manuscript at St Gallen in 1414 , this was printed in 1484 . The first edition with illustrations was published in 1511 , and an Italian translation appeared in 1531 . This work had a great influence on the building of Renaissance theatres, and from it the new generation of theatre designers took—though not always accurately—the idea of such devices as the periaktoi ...

Morrison, William Vitruvius

Morrison, William Vitruvius (1794–1838)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
222 words

...William Vitruvius ( 1794–1838 ) Irish architect , son and collaborator of Richard Morrison . His work was more Neo-Classical than his father’s, but he also carried out a number of Tudorbethan designs. Apart from the distinguished buildings they designed together (e.g. Baronscourt, Co. Tyrone (from 1835)), W.V.Morrison produced many houses of great interest, including Clontarf Castle, Clontarf, Co. Dublin (1836–7—Tudorbethan), Glenarm Castle and ‘Barbican’, Glenarm, Co. Antrim (1823–4— Tudor Gothic —not unlike his work at Borris, Co. Carlow),...

Vitruvius in Late Antiquity

Vitruvius in Late Antiquity   Reference library

Efthymios Rizos

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of Carolingian and Ottonian architecture. The earliest known manuscripts are Carolingian. In the East, Vitruvius was virtually unknown. Efthymios Rizos C. H. Krinsky , ‘Seventy-Eight Vitruvius Manuscripts’, Jnl Warburg & Courtauld Inst 30 (1967), 36–70. H.-W. Kruft , A History of Architectural Theory: From Vitruvius to the Present , tr. R. Taylor , E. Callander , and A. Wood (1994; German original 1985), 30ff. H. Plommer , Vitruvius and Later Roman Building Manuals ...

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