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Uruk

Subject: Archaeology

An ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, to the north-west of Ur. One of the greatest cities of Sumer, it was built in the 5th millennium bc and is associated with the legendary hero ...

Uruk

Uruk (mod. Warka)   Reference library

Amélie Kuhrt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
319 words

...and graves. Uruk was one of the most important Babylonian cities of the neo-Babylonian ( see babylonia ), Achaemenid and Seleucid periods. A Seleucid colony ‘Antioch-on-the-Ishtar-canal’, is attested near Uruk in 270 bc . Excavation reports: Vorläufige Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka (1930– ); for overview of 1st–15th campaigns, cf. R. North , Oriens 1957, 185–226. Finds (including texts) are published in the series: Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka (1936– ), and Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka,...

Uruk

Uruk   Reference library

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,094 words

... Uruk lies in the desert about 9 miles (15 km) east of the present course of the Euphrates River, 155 miles (250 km) south of Baghdad. Its mounds, encircled by a 5,000-year-old rampart 6.2 miles (10 km) in circumference, compose the largest archaeological site in southern Iraq. Although the Sumerians named the city Unu , Akkadian speakers called it Uruk , the name it is known by today. The Akkadian name appears in the Bible as Erech and is preserved in the Arabic name for its ruins, Warka . William Kennet Loftus first explored Uruk in the...

Uruk

Uruk   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
56 words

... One of the leading cities of the Sumerians . A community occupied the site as early as 5000 bc and in the 3rd millennium bc the city was surrounded by a 9.5-km (6-mile) wall. Excavation has revealed ziggurats dedicated to the two main gods, Anu and Inanna. It continued to be inhabited into Parthian times....

Uruk Period

Uruk Period   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
103 words

... Period [CP] The period between about 4200 bc and 3300 bc that marked the emergence of Mesopotamian state societies, named after the long and important sequence at Uruk , Iraq. During the Uruk Period large existing settlements developed the hallmark characteristics of urban settlements, elaborate ritual centres within key cities, the development of writing systems, extensive administrative systems, the mass production of pottery and other goods, and sophisticated art. In the late Uruk Period such patterns are seen outside southern Mesopotamia to the...

Uruk-Warka

Uruk-Warka   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,830 words
Illustration(s):
1

...fragments of sickles indicate a farming culture. [See Agriculture .] Uruk first consisted of two cities—Uruk and Kullab. Adam Falkenstein ( 1941 ) proposed that Kullab was situated in the precinct of the ziggurat of Anu (the great god of heaven), Uruk farther to the east, in the area later called Eanna. During the Uruk period, at the latest, both areas were united to form the city Uruk. The Uruk period, which followed the Ubaid 4 period, was first identified as such in Uruk. In this phase the city was so important an entire phase of Early Mesopotamian...

Uruk (Warka), Iraq

Uruk (Warka), Iraq   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
467 words

... (Warka), Iraq [Si] This is the largest archaeological site in southern Iraq, situated east of the present course of the Euphrates. The Sumerians knew the site as Unu, the Akkadian speakers as Uruk. The Akkadian name appears in the Bible as Erech. The site was first investigated by William Loftus in the mid 19th century, but it was not until 1912 that systematic excavations began, albeit sporadically at first, under the direction of Julius Jordan , for the Deutsche Orient‐Gesellschaft. As a result of this work it is now known that the site began in the...

Uruk

Uruk   Quick reference

New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
129 words

... • betook , book, brook, Brooke, Chinook, chook, Coke, cook, Cooke, crook, forsook, Gluck, hook, look, mistook, nook, partook, rook, schnook, schtuck, Shilluk, shook, Tobruk, took, undercook, undertook • handbook • chapbook , scrapbook • cash book • passbook • sketchbook • chequebook • netbook • textbook • daybook , playbook • casebook • phrase book • dybbuk • pocketbook • copybook • storybook • guidebook • logbook • songbook • scorebook • hornbook • sourcebook • schoolbook • notebook • cookbook, lookbook • yearbook • picture book • wordbook...

Uruk

Uruk   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, to the north-west of Ur. One of the greatest cities of Sumer, it was built in the 5th millennium bc and is associated with the legendary hero Gilgamesh. Excavations begun in 1928 revealed great ziggurats and temples dedicated to the sky god...

Uruk

Uruk   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
51 words
Uruk

Uruk   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
53 words
Uruk

Uruk   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
65 words
Uruk

Uruk   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
60 words
Uruk

Uruk   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
65 words
Uruk

Uruk  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
An ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, to the north-west of Ur. One of the greatest cities of Sumer, it was built in the 5th millennium bc and is associated with the legendary hero Gilgamesh. ...
Uruk Period

Uruk Period  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[CP]The period between about 4200 bc and 3300 bc that marked the emergence of Mesopotamian state societies, named after the long and important sequence at Uruk, Iraq. During the Uruk Period large ...
1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...a point where it outstripped the power of memory among the governing elite. To record transactions in an indisputable, permanent form became essential. Some scholars believe that a conscious search for a solution to this problem by an unknown Sumerian individual in the city of Uruk (biblical Erech), c .3300 bc , produced writing. Others posit that writing was the work of a group, presumably of clever administrators and merchants. Still others think it was not an invention at all, but an accidental discovery. Many regard it as the result of evolution over a...

Jemdet Nasr

Jemdet Nasr  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A settlement near Kish at the northern end of the Mesopotamian alluvial plain. Excavations by Stephen Langdon in the 1920s revealed a series of deposits containing a distinctive style of painted ...
Anu

Anu  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
[Di]The Sumerian sky god and chief divinity whose seat was at Uruk.
Enmerkar

Enmerkar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In a sacred marriage–related text from the Ur III period of Mesopotamia, Ensuhkesdanna, Lord of Aratta, challenges his rival, Enmerkar, King of Uruk, by claiming to be the true husband ...
riemchen

riemchen  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]German term for a type of ceramic brick commonly used in late Uruk Period structures in Mesopotamia. Such bricks are long and thin with a square cross‐section.

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