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Union, Act of (Wales)

A 20th‐cent. term applied to two Acts of Parliament (1536, 1542/3) in which Wales was declared ‘incorporated, united and annexed’ to the English realm. The 1536 Act laid down principles ...

Union, Act of (Wales)

Union, Act of (Wales)   Reference library

Ralph Alan Griffiths

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
320 words

..., Act of (Wales) . A 20th-cent . term applied to two Acts of Parliament ( 1536 , 1542 /3) in which Wales was declared ‘incorporated, united and annexed’ to the English realm. The 1536 Act laid down principles ‘for laws and justice to be administered in Wales in like form as it is in this realm’; the Act of 1542 /3 contained further details. This legislation completed social, administrative, and judicial developments in the principality and marcher lordships of Wales since Edward I ’s reign. It sprang from the circumstances of the 1530s: Henry VIII ’s...

Union, Act of (Wales)

Union, Act of (Wales)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
168 words

..., Act of (Wales) A 20th‐cent. term applied to two Acts of Parliament ( 1536 , 1542 /3) in which Wales was declared ‘incorporated, united and annexed’ to the English realm. The 1536 Act laid down principles ‘for laws and justice to be administered in Wales in like form as it is in this realm’; the Act of 1542 /3 contained further details. The 1536 Act created five shires (Monmouth, Brecon, Radnor, Denbigh, and Montgomery) in addition to the six of the old principality (Carmarthen, Cardigan, Anglesey, Caernarfon, Merioneth, and Flint) and existing...

Union, Act of (Wales)

Union, Act of (Wales)  

A 20th‐cent. term applied to two Acts of Parliament (1536, 1542/3) in which Wales was declared ‘incorporated, united and annexed’ to the English realm. The 1536 Act laid down principles ‘for laws and ...
The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to do, the amount of money spent on the poor who did not live in the workhouse, the level of the poor rates, the cost of living, and membership of friendly societies, etc. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 divided the whole of England and Wales into unions of parishes, in each of which a board of guardians was elected to administer poor relief. These unions were often centred on a market town, and they sometimes stretched beyond county boundaries. County maps of the unions are provided in the atlas accompanying the 1849 editions of Samuel Lewis , A...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...lists of schools with poor buildings. Individual secondary schools’ files are to be found in ED 35, while their parent Local Education Authorities—the county and county borough councils—each have a file dating from 1902 through to reorganization of the archive after the 1944 Education Act (ED 53). Much of the education material is arranged at The National Archives by Local Education Authority and is thus relatively easily accessible, although that for Wales is disappointing, owing to floods in Cardiff in 1960 that destroyed many of the records of the...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Wales was divided between 65 counties and 97 boroughs holding their own quarter sessions, 224 municipal borough councils, 667 Poor Law unions, 852 turnpike trusts, 117 improvement commissions, 637 Boards of Health, and 404 highway authorities (in rural areas), there being in all 27 000 different authorities (including parishes) entitled to levy one or more out of eighteen different types of rate ( D. N. Chester , The English Administrative System ( 1981 ), 347). The role of the magistrates in local government was largely ended by the Local Government Act of...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as can be seen from the historical essays in Keith Ewing (ed.), The Right to Strike: From the Trade Disputes Act 1906 to a Trade Union Freedom Bill 2006 ( 2006 ). It is clear that, in terms of class formation, the working class of the late 19th century became a different animal from that of the early period: it can be seen in residential patterns (on which relevant, if not conventional labour history, is Richard Dennis , English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century: A Social Geography ( 1984 ), leisure activities (see, for example, Tony Mason , ...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

Andrew Murphy

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...included a *subscription list running to just under 430 names, headed by the Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal. In the wake of the definitive lapse of the 1662 Act in 1695 , the publishing trade persistently lobbied Parliament to pass some form of legislation that would afford legal protection of their interests. What emerged from this process was an *Act for the Encouragement of Learning , by Vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or Purchasers of such Copies (8 Anne, c. 19), passed by Parliament in 1709 to take effect in 1710 ....

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Agriculture or the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce—institutions which were reflected in colonial miniature in societies such as the Jamaican Society for the Cultivation of Agriculture and other Arts and Sciences, or the Society of Arts of Barbados. Though such colonial replicas were often short-lived, they testified to the dissemination of cultural values which helped to bind the metropolitan power with the colonial élites of the scattered empire, just as the goals of improvement had done much after the *Act of Union to...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of an autonomous decline in the virulence of disease or of increased resistance of human hosts to infection as a result of better food supplies and improved environmental conditions. It may well have been a combination of the two. But these were not effects confined solely to England and Wales or even to continental Europe, and showed few signs of having been primarily associated with Britain's role as the first industrial nation. Indeed, in so far as a link might be posited with one of the most obvious symptoms of economic development, the growth of the...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...II, 1901–45 By the 1890s , Australian attitudes to Great Britain and the empire were diverse and complex. A series of crises in the Pacific spurred agitation for political union; fears of French and German expansion were exacerbated by reports of Russian plans to attack Melbourne and Sydney. In 1885 , Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria, and Fiji formed the Federal Council of Australasia. Sir Henry Parkes , the New South Wales premier and former newspaper proprietor, initiated moves towards full political unification in 1889 . Then, leading...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...districts of Poor Law unions. National reports on the grammar schools start with Nicholas Carlisle , Concise Description of the Endowed Grammar Schools in England and Wales (2 vols, 1818) , which includes replies from correspondents to his eighteen questions. The Reports of the Charity Commissioners of the earlier 19th century, often known as the reports of the Brougham Commission, were published from 1819 in 32 volumes. The Reports of the Schools Inquiry Commission (the Taunton Commission, 1868–9 ) and the Reports of the Royal Commission...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...forces of tradition. In this view one could be a sceptic but not a total sceptic, a Christian but not an intolerant or rigidly orthodox one, an admirer of the status quo but not utterly uncritical. With the unions between England and Scotland in 1707 , and Ireland in 1800 [ see *Act of Union ], the dominant political tendency was towards unification, but the Enlightenment in Britain was never unified in this way. The *Scottish Enlightenment was in part an assertion of national identity by a country which had lost its statehood, and Enlightenment...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prescriptions of the common law tradition in the century after 1750 . Their impact will be assessed in the areas of civil law, criminal law, and legislation. But above all it is necessary to place law in the perspective of the *constitution . The legislative inheritance of the Reformation and the political legacy of the seventeenth century meant that after 1688 it was not possible at a theoretical level to dispute explicitly the supremacy of King-in-parliament as a source of law and government. The Act of Settlement ( 1701 ), the Act of Union with Scotland...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...population of England and Wales aged 65 and over more than doubled, from 4.7 per cent to 11 per cent. (It stood at 16 per cent in 2005 .) The salient features of family life in the 1960s included individual longevity, a high incidence of marriage, the concentration of childbearing in the early years of marriage, and the widespread experience of retirement and grandparenthood. Shorter working hours, fewer children, and a longer life together made companionship more important for married couples. The home became for many people a haven of comfortable domesticity...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...unity, owed much to the efforts of Daniel *O'Connell 's leadership of the Catholic Association. The depressed state of the economy led to the agrarian revolt of 1830 and to massive industrial protests in south Wales in 1831 . Middle-class voters greatly increased Whig representation in the House of Commons at the crucial general election of 1831 . Prolonged parliamentary debates on the Reform Bill led to the creation of a host of new political societies, the political unions especially, across the country, and to a revival of many moribund reform clubs. The...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Agricultural Depression of the last quarter of the century, as it was of earlier times. It is this variety of experience that agricultural historians have come to recognize, whatever their subject of enquiry. The simple generalizations of the past have been rejected. The achievements of the agricultural historians associated with the British Agricultural History Society and The Agrarian History of England and Wales have been considerable. Scotland and Ireland have not been so well served, largely because of the paucity of records for the pre‐modern era....

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as well as religious relations with England. In Wales, the Church had been incorporated into the Church of England when the principality became a part of the larger nation in 1536 , but its ministers presided over a population increasingly alienated by culture and language. Although by the middle of the nineteenth century the Church of England began to act more responsibly towards such Welsh communicants as had not joined the highly successful Dissenting sects, the demand for disestablishment became a gauge of nationalism and a pressing political issue for...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...parliament of 1782 in order to make powerful democratic claims for the oppressed Catholic majority and later to mount still more radical challenges to the *Act of Union of 1800 . O'Connell's spectacular success in mobilizing mass peasant support to win *Catholic emancipation in 1829 was unfortunately matched by the equally dramatic failure of his repeal campaign when the *Peel Tory government called his bluff and forced him to cancel a ‘monster’ meeting at Clontarf in 1843 . In so doing, Peel's English government exposed the limits of the language...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Act of 1829 (a private Act obtained by the Cheshire quarter sessions to enable them to appoint their own paid police); forces set up under local acts obtained by towns; forces established by adopting the Lighting and Watching Act of 1833 , which enabled parishes to levy a rate to pay for a police; forces set up by poor law unions and paid for from the poor rates (until this was declared illegal in 1836 ); and, in growing numbers by the late 1830s, forces established and sustained by voluntary subscription, and run by local magnates. By the time of the...

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