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Theophrastus

(c. 372 bc–287 bc) Greek botanist and philosopher Theophrastus, who was born at Eresus on Lesbos (now in Greece), attended the Academy at Athens as a pupil of Plato. After ...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (370–288 bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... ( 370–288 bce ) , philosopher and botanist from Lesbos who discusses viticulture in his ‘plant...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Reference library

Maggie Campbell-Culver

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... ( 371– c .287/262 bc ), Greek philosopher and botanist. Theophrastus was sent by his father to Athens to study under Plato. He was a contemporary, sometime pupil, and intimate friend of Aristotle ( 384–322 bc ), who gave to Theophrastus his established botanic garden in Athens, which he tended and studied during the next 60 years. Theophrastus is known to have written some 227 treatises, most of which are now lost, but two important botanical works remain, Historia Plantarum and De Causis Plantarum . Many of his observations, careful description,...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
204 words

... ( c. 372 bc –287 bc ) Greek botanist and philosopher Theophrastus , who was born at Eresus on Lesbos (now in Greece), attended the Academy at Athens as a pupil of Plato . After Plato's death he joined Aristotle and became his chief assistant when Aristotle founded the Lyceum at Athens. On Aristotle's retirement Theophrastus became head of the school. The school flourished under him and is said to have numbered two thousand pupils at this time. Of Theophrastus's many works, his nine-volume Enquiry into Plants is considered the most...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (c.371–287 bc)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
111 words

... ( c. 371–287 bc ) Greek philosopher, head of the Peripatetic school after Aristotle . His influence on English literature stems from his Characters , thirty brief sketches of human types embodying particular faults: the flatterer, the overproud, the bad‐mannered. The popularity of Theophrastus in modern times dates from the edition of the 23 Characters then known with Latin translations by Isaac Casaubon ( 1592 ). An English version by John Healey ( c. 1585– c. 1616 ) appeared in 1616 , but before then Joseph Hall enlarged Theophrastus...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (c.372–288bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
115 words

... ( c .372–288 bc ) Pupil of Aristotle, cited on subjects ranging from the characteristics of stones to the influence of stars on embryonic development and considered the first true botanist. His Enquiry into Plants and Causes of Plants were influential during the MA. Much from them was incorporated into the Pseudo-Aristotelian De Plantis , translated into Latin by Alfred of Sareshal in the 12th century. De Plantis was incorporated into the De vegetalibus of *Albertus Magnus . Anne Van Arsdall D. Gutas , ‘ The Life, Works, and Sayings of...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Reference library

Andrew Dalby

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... On his deathbed the Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle was asked to choose his successor as head of the peripatetic school. He sent for Rhodian wine. ‘This is indeed a good, sound wine,’ he said as he sipped it. Then he asked for a cup of Lesbian wine. ‘Both are excellent,’ he said, ‘but the Lesbian is the sweeter.’ His followers took the gentle hint, passed over Eudemus of Rhodes, and appointed Theophrastus of Eresus on Lesbos as their head. Born about 371 bc , Theophrastus had come to Athens to study under Aristotle. He succeeded his...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (c.372–c.287bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,379 words

...). Theophrastus’ writings on more popular ethics ( On Friendship , On Age ) apparently had some influence on later authors, such as Cicero and Plutarch . Lesser known, however, are Theophrastus’ political writings. According to Cicero , Theophrastus distinguished himself with his political theory. Theophrastus’ teachings on the four virtues of ideal diction (correctness of language, clarity, appropriateness, and ornament), developed from Aristotelian approaches, were clearly important to the later development of oratory. Theophrastus’ authority...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (371–287)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
147 words

... ( c. 371–287 bc ) Greek philosopher , head of the Peripatetic school after Aristotle . He is said to have written on style, and two of his works on plants survive. But his influence on English literature stems from his Characters , thirty brief sketches of human types embodying particular faults: the flatterer, the overproud, the bad‐mannered. The popularity of Theophrastus in modern times dates from the edition of the 23 Characters then known with Latin translations by Isaac Casaubon ( 1592 ). An English version by John Healey ( c....

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Reference library

R. W. Sharples

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
154 words

... ( c. 371– c. 287 bc ). Younger colleague of Aristotle , his partner in his researches and his successor as head of the Lyceum, the school Aristotle founded. Theophrastus wrote on everything from modal logic (where he introduced the rule that the conclusion cannot be stronger than the weakest premiss) to penalties for gazumping. His surviving writings include sketches of (faulty) human character-types, fundamental works on botany, and shorter pieces, including a Metaphysics which contains more questions than solutions. He has been seen as...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
535 words

...discussion and observation. Much of his writing seems, like the extant Metaphysics , to have raised questions rather than asserting a position. Theophrastus made important modifications to Aristotle's modal logic. His research in propositional logic anticipated and probably influenced Chrysippus ; but it was Chrysippus rather than Theophrastus who made this the foundation of a new logical system. Theophrastus certainly rejected Aristotle's Unmoved Mover, and argued—though not necessarily against Aristotle—that teleological explanation could not be...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (c.370–c.288)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
94 words

... ( c .370– c .288 bc ) A pupil and collaborator of Aristotle ’s, and his successor as the head of the Peripatetics . Although he was an influential teacher and an energetic writer, few of his works have survived. His philosophy differed from that of Aristotle mainly in an empiricist direction, and in scepticism concerning the extravagances of Aristotle’s teleological approach to nature, but mainly he pursued Aristotelian science and systematization. His treatise On the Opinions of the Physical Philosophers was the major source of later...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Quick reference

Robert William Sharples

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
731 words

...like the extant Metaphysics , to have raised questions rather than categorically asserting a position. Together with Eudemus of Rhodes, Theophrastus made important modifications to Aristotle's modal logic. His research in propositional logic anticipated and probably influenced the Stoic Chrysippus of Soli; but it was Chrysippus rather than Theophrastus who made this the foundation of a new logical system. Theophrastus certainly rejected Aristotle's Unmoved Mover, and argued—though not necessarily against Aristotle—that teleological explanation could not...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (372)   Reference library

Robert William Sharples

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,105 words

...seems, like the extant Metaphysics , to have raised questions rather than categorically asserting a position. Together with Eudemus , Theophrastus made important modifications to Aristotle's modal logic. His research in propositional logic anticipated and probably influenced the Stoic Chrysippus ; but it was Chrysippus rather than Theophrastus who made this the foundation of a new logical system ( see logic ). Theophrastus certainly rejected Aristotle's Unmoved Mover, and argued—though not necessarily against Aristotle—that teleological explanation could...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus (c.372––c.287 bc)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
126 words

...Theophrastus c. 372 – – c. 287 bc Greek botanist and philosopher Spontaneous generation, to put the matter simply, takes place in smaller plants, especially in those that are annuals and herbaceous. But still it occasionally occurs too in larger plants whenever there is rainy weather or some peculiar condition of air or soil; for thus it is said that the silphium sprang up in Libya when a murky and heavy sort of wet weather condition occurred, and that the timber growth which is now there has come from some similar reason or other; for it was not...

Theophra'stus

Theophra'stus (c.370–c.287 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
351 words

...us to sleep’). The ‘Characters’ delineate in a concise form types similar to those found in the New Comedy of Menander (who was said to be a pupil of Theophrastus), an aspect of the work which suggests to some that it was connected less with ethics, as studied by Aristotle, and more with the writing of comedy or with forensic rhetoric (in which the orator's ability to characterize was important). Theophrastus was remembered in late antiquity for the perfection of his Attic Greek: having come to Athens from Lesbos he had to learn the native dialect. According...

Paracelsus, Theophrastus

Paracelsus, Theophrastus (1493–1541)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
489 words

...Theophrastus (Einsiedeln, Switzerland, 1493–1541 , Salzburg), physician , original thinker, and legendary figure, whose true name is variously given as Theophrast von Hohenheim (in Württemberg) and Th. Bombast von Hohenheim . In the latinized form the names Philippus and/or Aureolus sometimes precede the Theophrastus. Paracelsus was the son of a Württemberg doctor who moved to Villach, Carinthia, in 1502 . He studied medicine, possibly at Tübingen, and certainly at Ferrara. In 1527 he became professor of medicine at Basel, where he was in...

Theophrastus in the Renaissance

Theophrastus in the Renaissance   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
216 words

... in the Renaissance . Theophrastus ( c. 372 bc –287 bc ) was the successor to Aristotle as scholarch of the Peripatos. He was primarily a scientist rather than a philosopher; his main scientific treatises centred on botany (especially taxonomy and physiology), but he also wrote on natural phenomena and human physiology. In the late Renaissance it was his Characters , a collection of 30 character sketches, which created a new genre, initially in English literature; the distinctive feature of the Theophrastian character is that it describes types...

Impressions of Theophrastus Such

Impressions of Theophrastus Such   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,873 words

...The Greek presence begins with the title, which she originally proposed as ‘Characters and Characteristics, or Impressions of Theophrastus Such, Edited by George Eliot’. The meaning of Theophrastus ‘Such’ recalls a Greek formula used by the original Theophrastus in his Characters , in which the chapters begin with the phrase toiontos tis, hoios , or ‘such a type who’. Eliot's ‘such’ represents the translation of ancient Theophrastus into a modern context. The epigraph to the book is an untranslated Latin passage from Phaedrus' Fabulae , suggesting that the...

Impressions of Theophrastus Such, The

Impressions of Theophrastus Such, The   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
27 words

...of Theophrastus Such, The ( 1879 ) A volume of essays by George Eliot , mostly character studies loosely based on the model of Theophrastus...

Impressions of Theophrastus Such, The

Impressions of Theophrastus Such, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
90 words

...of Theophrastus Such, The A volume of essays by George Eliot , published 1879 . Most of the eighteen essays are character studies loosely based on the model of Theophrastus ; the author writes in the character of the bachelor son of a Tory Midlands country parson, himself a Londoner, and reflects on various contemporary types, such as the carping and arrogant Lentulus and the ever‐youthful though ageing Ganymede. The last chapter echoes Daniel Deronda in its defence of Jewish nationalism and its attack on various manifestations of...

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