You are looking at 1-20 of 33 entries  for:

  • All: The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824 x
clear all

View:

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824   Reference library

Jaime E. Rodríguez O.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,795 words

... Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 18081824 The independence of New Spain was not the result of an anticolonial struggle. Rather, it was a consequence of a great political revolution that culminated in the dissolution of the Spanish Monarchy, a world-wide political system. The movement was an integral part of the broader process that was transforming antiguo régimen societies into modern liberal nation states. The new country of Mexico that emerged from the break up of the Spanish Monarchy retained many of the shared...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of Spanish-American creole elites and gradually made them more cosmopolitan. 3 Independence and the print revolution The French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1808 unleashed a political crisis throughout the Spanish and the Portuguese empires that, between 1808 and 1824 , eventually led to the independence of all their colonies in America (except Cuba and Puerto Rico). These events were accompanied by a print revolution. The Spanish king’s abdication and the dissolution of his empire resulted in the virtual disappearance of the printing monopolies,...

Mexico

Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,259 words

...1870 , followed by the Civil Code of 1884 , which remained in effect until the first decade of the twentieth century, when the replacement of the ancient juridical order was completed according to new federal procedure codes in civil and penal matters. Mexico entered independence as the Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano), which later became a republic, sometimes federal, sometimes central. The government issued eight constitutions in the nineteenth century ( 1812 , 1824 , 1835 , 1836 , 1843 , 1847 , 1857 , and 1865 ) before enacting the current...

Publishers

Publishers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,695 words

.... Because the Spanish banned the printing press from northern New Spain, the first Hispanic presses and publishers in the United States represented the exile and immigrant communities on the East Coast. Indeed contact with Anglo-Americans did result in the introduction of the press to Texas in 1813 , but it was not until 1834 , under the Republic of Mexico, that the press was introduced to New Mexico and California. Later in the nineteenth century, when masses of Anglo-Americans arrived in the present-day Southwest, bringing the printing press with...

Periodicals, Newspapers, and Journals

Periodicals, Newspapers, and Journals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,549 words

...Mexico's independence movement from Spain. In 1834 and 1835 , almost contemporary with the introduction of the press to California and New Mexico, Spanish-language newspapers began to appear in these northern provinces of Mexico: Santa Fe's El crepúsculo de la libertad (The Dawn of Liberty) and Taos's El crepúsculo ( 1835–? , Dawn). Prior to the U.S. conquest, these other newspapers had been published in New Mexico: La verdad ( 1844–1845 , The Truth) and its successor El payo de Nuevo México ( 1845 , The New Mexico Countryman). By the 1880s and...

Monteagudo, Bernardo de

Monteagudo, Bernardo de (1789–1825)   Reference library

María de Lourdes Ghidoli and Amy Savage

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,489 words

...after the establishment of the revolutionary government in May 1810 . When Moreno died in March 1811 , Monteagudo sought to reorganize Morenista supporters in a group called the Sociedad Patriótica (Patriotic Society), eventually becoming its spokesperson. He founded the newspapers Mártir o Libre (Martyr or Free) and El Grito del Sud (The Call of the South), which served as broadcasting agencies for the society, and from whose pages he urged an immediate declaration of independence as the first step for the organization of a republic. Halfway...

Mesoamerican Chronology

Mesoamerican Chronology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
37,176 words
Illustration(s):
6

...and exploit them more systematically. The beginning of the reign of Charles III in 1759 was used as a convenient benchmark, followed by a series of directives from José de Gálvez , as royal inspector in New Spain and then Minister of the Indies, to make Indian communities more efficient producers and taxpayers. Finally, this colonial history closed with the independence movements of the 1810s and the separation of Mexico and Central America from Spain, which brought the abolition in law of mandatory labor services by Indian communities for state and...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,728 words
Illustration(s):
2

...independence local industries, especially in Catalonia, became increasingly competitive in the domestic market, and this process was accelerated in the 1820s. The reduction of exports of agricultural goods was offset by the formation of the domestic market and by the expansion of wheat and flour exports to Cuba. Thanks to this trade and its proceeds, cities such as Santander witnessed the rise of a new mercantile bourgeoisie. Surprisingly the liberal Spanish regime opted to strengthen the church's control of the Philippines—the state paid the salaries of...

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
20,780 words
Illustration(s):
3

... and 1824 . An effective new Spanish navy, using modernized ship design, was begun from the time of the administration of the Marqués de Molina in 1847–1851 . During the 1850s and 1860s, Spanish naval expeditions went to Morocco and Cochin China , fought a war against three Latin American republics, and joined in a combined expedition with France to Mexico . By the 1870s and 1880s, plans for a modernized steam navy were repeatedly attempted and were successful from 1887 , but the result of this effort was largely destroyed in 1898 during the war...

France

France   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,849 words
Illustration(s):
3

...system and a new Communist party modeled after the Bolsheviks who had taken power in Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution. The war had unleashed rapid inflation, which hurt the interests of middle-class families. In the colonies, opposition to French rule and demands for independence began to develop. The worldwide economic depression after 1929 and Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany in 1933 posed new threats to the Third Republic. Democracy was threatened when a massive right-wing street demonstration in front of the parliament building...

Empire and Imperialism

Empire and Imperialism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
48,163 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the crown was based on the subjects' right to review new laws and to dismiss those that they found harmful to their region. Indian visions of an alternative to colonial society were almost entirely self-generated and parochial and often harked back to their glorified memories of a pre-Hispanic past. Following the Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1808 , most of the American colonies moved quickly to independence, Mexico and Venezuela gaining their freedom in 1821 , Ecuador in 1822 , Peru in 1824 , and Bolivia in 1825 . Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the...

Political Parties

Political Parties   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
21,276 words
Illustration(s):
3

...In Latin America the earliest parties, like the Liberal Party in Colombia ( 1815 ) and the parties founded in Uruguay in the 1830s, emerged in the wake of wars of independence against Spain and under the impact of ideological influence from the United States. Latin American parties have a record of high party turnover, a result of both weak organizational structures and frequent regime change. Still, there are also striking examples of stability, such as the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party) in Mexico, which dominated...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
19,190 words
Illustration(s):
6

...by the liberal ideology that shaped Latin America's wars for independence and in part by the large-scale participation of slaves and free men of color in the armies that fought for independence, the new nations that arose out of the Spanish Empire put anti-slavery provisions into their new constitutions or abolished slavery through statutory provisions. The legal mechanisms for abolition varied. In 1824 Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica—at the time united in the Federal Republic of Central America—abolished slavery by an act of the...

United States Law

United States Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
30,330 words
Illustration(s):
7

...During the Colonial period, Spain controlled Florida and parts of the Southeast and Southwest (in particular, New Mexico and Texas). At the imperial level, Spain established a centralized colonial bureaucracy of Spanish officials. At the local level, however, governance often was placed with Catholic missionaries or Spanish colonists who governed the native population in a system of labor known as the encomienda . The French colonial presence remained most dominant in trading settlements along the Mississippi valley. Unlike the English, Spanish and French...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
17,440 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and Argentina (in 1823 ), and then spreading to the rest of Latin America and to Central America ( 1824 ) and Mexico ( 1829 ). Slavery was finally abolished in France and the French Empire in 1848 , in the Netherlands and Dutch colonies in 1863 . By the 1860s, the main slaveholding areas in the world were the United States, Brazil, the Spanish Caribbean, Korea, and some parts of Africa. In the United States, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin ( 1852 ) had highlighted to many Americans and others the plight of slaves in the southern states. The...

science in history

science in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and founded an influential journal, Mathematica Notae . Another important immigrant was the Spanish mathematician Luis Alberto Santaló ( 1911–2001 ). The visit of Albert Einstein to Argentina and Brazil in 1925 was a great support to the emergent scientific establishment in both countries. Very important in the health sciences was the discovery in 1881 of the vector of yellow fever by the Cuban Juan Carlos Finlay, who became the Republic of Cuba's first Director of Health in 1902 to implement programs of eradication of these vectors and of mass...

Education

Education   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
20,721 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1789–1807 ) and continuing with the more comprehensive and secularizing Tanzimat reforms ( 1839–1876 ) under the reigns of Sultan Mahmud II ( r. 1808–1839 ) and Sultan Abdülmecid (or Abdelmejid; r. 1839–1861 ), propelled more penetrating educational changes. Early legislation from Istanbul in 1824 called for compulsory education for boys, and the Tanzimat Education Regulation of 1869 (Maarif Nizamnamesi) stipulated a plan for a centrally organized network of schools throughout the empire. In Egypt the first modern education ministry to regulate primary...

Art

Art   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
16,627 words

...) and Bonaparte on the Bridge of Arcole and Napoleon at the Battle of Eylau (both 1808). Théodore Géricault challenged this celebratory tradition of French painting with his Wounded Cuirassier ( 1814 ), which showed the effects of the battle on the soldier rather than portraying him as an invincible hero. After Napoleon and the catastrophic results of the Franco-Prussian War ( 1870–1871 ), French artists increasingly focused on the tragic outcome of war. This newer focus is apparent in Edouard Manet’s The Execution of Emperor Maximilian ( 1867 ) and...

Lucas Alamán and 19th-Century Monarchism in Mexico

Lucas Alamán and 19th-Century Monarchism in Mexico   Reference library

Miguel Soto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,849 words

...of the new order that was about to take place in Mexico, one that they could sanction with their representation; nevertheless, most of them went on to the peninsula to carry out their electorate’s voice. Among them was Alamán; other delegates were Manuel Gómez Pedraza, future president of Mexico, and Lorenzo de Zavala, future vice president of the Texas Republic. In the Spanish Parliament The main purpose of the Plan of Iguala was to avoid the radical legislation of the new Spanish congress; in order to do that it called for a new independence from Spain,...

War and Peace between Mexico and the United States in the 18th and 19th Centuries

War and Peace between Mexico and the United States in the 18th and 19th Centuries   Reference library

Josefina Zoraida Vázquez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
14,194 words

...and Peace between Mexico and the United States in the 18th and 19th Centuries In 1846 , with the pretext of defending Texas, the United States invaded Mexico, seeking to conquer New Mexico and California. The US invasion seemed inexplicable because, at the time of the Declaration of Independence of 1776 , there existed a substantial asymmetry with the Thirteen Colonies that favored the vast, rich, and prosperous viceroyalty of New Spain, “the most precious jewel of the Spanish crown.” The Thirteen Colonies that made up the Confederation were productive but...

View: