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35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
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2

...the Great (r. 1762–96 ). International science in 18 th -century Russia: the Scottish scientist Matthew Guthrie, living in St Petersburg, publishes his account of the freezing point of mercury. The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (G. Pamph. 1821(5) She supported the founding of the Society for the Publication of Foreign Books ( 1768–83 ), which was responsible for the publication of 112 separate translations (including Fielding, Tasso, *Rousseau , Montesquieu, Voltaire, and selections from the * Encyclopédie ), and became the leading voice for...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the same time, a wide range of academic and other institutions have become involved in assembling and organizing their own collections. The Encyclopedia ( 2000 ) provided a list of 116 known holdings and, in a few cases, including *Reading University and the *Rare Book School at the University of Virginia , courses on printed ephemera have been incorporated into the study of the *history of the book . Part of this spread of interest in all areas of fugitive print has been the formation of an international network of ephemera dealers. In England, one of...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
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4

...extended. By the end of the century, a bureau was in operation in Nagasaki to check the cargoes of all incoming Chinese ships to make sure that they were not carrying any of the proscribed books or similar works. The efficiency of this bureau kept offending books out of the official trade, but could not prevent smuggling; the detailed bureaucratic records now give a good idea of what books were legally imported to Japan and when. This system of import censorship remained rigidly in force until the 1720s when the Shogun Yoshimune, who was a man of scientific...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., Sahibs and Munshis: An Account of the College of Fort William (1978) — Encyclopaedia of India Literature (5 vols, 1989) K. S. Duggal , Book Publishing in India (1980) A. Ghosh , Power in Print: Popular Publishing and the Politics of Language and Culture in a Colonial Society, 1778–1905 (2006) G. A. Grierson , ‘The Early Publication of the Serampore Mission Press’, The Indian Antiquary , (1903), 241–54 A. Gupta and S. Chakravorty , eds., Print Areas: Book History in India (2004) — Moveable Type: Book History in India (2008) P. Joshi , In...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...clothbound editions of British and American authors helped Ticknor & Fields create a reputation as America’s premier publisher of transatlantic ‘high’ literature. At the same time that they were organizing the processes of book production, publishers worked to manage their trade and subvert the potential for ruinous competition. In the absence of international copyright treaties, rival editions of popular British authors could lead to falling book prices as publishers sought to undersell one another. This concern led to the extra-legal but widely understood...

Negotiable Instruments (Wertpapiere)

Negotiable Instruments (Wertpapiere)  

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The legal status of negotiable instruments developed from legal documents generally. Legal scholarship of the nineteenth century developed the concept of legal instruments for the various legal ...
Legal Anthropology

Legal Anthropology  

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While the changing role of law in social interactions from an anthropological perspective remains the main focus of legal anthropology, there have been significant shifts in emphasis over time. Its ...
Individual Effort of Legal Reasoning (Ijtihād)

Individual Effort of Legal Reasoning (Ijtihād)  

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Ijtihād is the effort to derive specific shariʿa rules from the jurisprudential sources. A person who is qualified to do so is called mujtahid. Muslim jurists define the shariʿa as ...
Overview

Overview  

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The legal history of the Republic of South Africa with its continuing evolution of a unique hybrid common law continues today an ongoing process of postapartheid reconstruction. Although legal ...
Hsueh Yun-Sheng

Hsueh Yun-Sheng  

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(1820–1901).was a native of Changan (now X’ian, in Shaanxi province). The last great legal scholar of the Chinese empire, he was the master of the legal reformer and scholar ...
LawReporting in English Common Law

LawReporting in English Common Law  

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The reporting of cases is a seemingly ubiquitous feature of the modern legal world, commonly associated with systems of legal reasoning in which previous decisions are regarded as authoritative or ...
Worship in Islamic Law

Worship in Islamic Law  

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In the conventional structure of Islamic legal works, acts of worship (ʿibādāt) represent a category defined in distinction to (and in precedence over) mu ʿāmalāt, or interpersonal transactions. ...
Historiography of English Common Law

Historiography of English Common Law  

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The study of English legal history began in earnest in the late nineteenth century with the work of Frederic William Maitland in England and James Barr Ames in the United ...
Smriti

Smriti  

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 In the long history of dharmaŚāstra, the classical Indian legal tradition, smriti is one of the major sources of Hindu law, along with Śruti (the Veda) and custom. The Sanskrit ...
Dissent (Ikhtilāf)

Dissent (Ikhtilāf)  

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“The dissent of the learned scholars is a mercy from God for his community” is a saying quoted in Muslim legal literature since the second century of the hijra (eighth ...
Kasani, Abu Bakr Ibn Masʿud

Kasani, Abu Bakr Ibn Masʿud  

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(d. a.h. 587/1191 c.e.).Ala al-Din Abu Bakr ibn Masʿud al-Kasani, was a leading Muslim jurist of the Hanafi school, one of the four legal schools of orthodox Islam. He ...
Zang

Zang  

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One of the most important concepts in the Chinese legal codes is that of zang (tsang in Wade-Giles transliteration), a term that may be translated broadly as “illicit goods.” It ...
War and Peace in Islamic Law

War and Peace in Islamic Law  

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War is the normal relationship between Muslim states and non-Muslim political entities according to the classical legal discussions. In the Qurʾan, warfare, expressed by the term qitāl (fighting), is ...
Caribbean Law

Caribbean Law  

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Overview Page
An immensely plural amalgam of many older European laws and some local traditions, the legal systems of this region are prominently based on different types of civil law or common ...
Litigation in Ancient Athens

Litigation in Ancient Athens  

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Detailed knowledge of the Athenian legal process is limited to the period from which forensic speeches survive, c.420–320 b.c.e. Athenian litigation followed an adversarial rather than inquisitorial ...

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