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Stroop effect

Delay and disruption in naming the colours of words printed in non-matching coloured ink, as when the word red is printed in blue ink, the word blue in green ink, and so on. To perform the ...

Stroop effect

Stroop effect   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,526 words
Illustration(s):
1

... effect Over 70 years ago, John Ridley Stroop ( 1935 ) published a dissertation that provided the point of origin for one of psychology's best known and most enduring phenomena. 1. The phenomenon 2. What causes interference? 3. Stroop and consciousness 1. The phenomenon The Stroop effect is simultaneously deceptively simple yet compelling. When naming aloud the print colour of an incongruent colour word (e.g. saying ‘red’ to the word ‘green’ printed in red), people are much slower and more error prone than they are when naming aloud the colour of a...

Stroop effect

Stroop effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...so that red becomes sfe , and so on; then ask people to name all the colours in which the words are printed as quickly as possible, and compare the average times for the two sheets. Compare flanker compatibility effect , Simon effect . [Named after the US psychologist J(ohn) Ridley Stroop ( 1897–1973 ) who first reported the effect in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1935...

Stroop effect

Stroop effect  

Delay and disruption in naming the colours of words printed in non-matching coloured ink, as when the word red is printed in blue ink, the word blue in green ink, and so on. To perform the task it is ...
Simon effect

Simon effect  

The tendency for choice reaction time to be shorter and responses more accurate when stimulus (1) and response occur in the same relative location, even if location is irrelevant to the task. Thus, ...
automatic processing

automatic processing  

Any information processing that occurs involuntarily and without conscious intention or control, as in the performance of well-practised activities such as seeing, reading, riding a bicycle, playing ...
flanker compatibility effect

flanker compatibility effect  

A shorter choice reaction time in response to a target stimulus closely flanked by compatible than incompatible stimuli. For example, if target stimuli are presented in the middle of five-letter ...
automaticity

automaticity  

The ability to perform a task by automatic processing, independent of conscious control and attention. Strong automaticity is almost entirely automatic and can be carried out without attention. ...
cognition, unconscious

cognition, unconscious  

The unconscious mind was one of the most important ideas of the 20th century, influencing not just scientific and clinical psychology but also literature, art, and popular culture. Sigmund Freud ...
cognitive control and consciousness

cognitive control and consciousness  

In a forced‐choice reaction time task, responses are slower after an error. This is one example of dynamic adjustment of behaviour, i.e. control of cognitive processing, which according to Botvinick ...
priming

priming  

1 In a task involving recall, recognition, or some other form of cognitive performance, the provision of a contextual cue (3), prime (1), or prompt that provides information about either the identity ...
signal detection theory

signal detection theory  

A psychophysical theory of the detectability of stimuli developed in 1952–4 by a number of US researchers led by John A(rthur) Swets (born 1928), based on the assumptions that there is a normal ...
synaesthesia

synaesthesia  

1 A sensory experience elicited by a stimulus in a different sensory modality, as when particular sounds evoke sensations of colour. See also chromaesthesia, photism (1).2 The experience of a ...
colour

colour  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Created by the reactions of the human eye to certain properties possessed by an object when it reflects or emits light. More technically, colour is determined by ocular interpretation of ...
colour

colour n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., colour triangle , colour zone , complementary colours , cone pigment , film colour , flight of colours , Grassmann’s laws (perception) , isoluminant , Ladd-Franklin theory , Maxwell disc , McCollough effect , metamer , opponent-process theory , pattern-induced flicker colour , Rayleigh equation , retinex theory , Stroop effect , surface colour , Talbot’s law , trichromacy , trichromatic theory , tristimulus values , Young–Helmholtz theory . [From Old French colour colour, from Latin color a colour or hue, cognate with celare ...

Simon effect

Simon effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...information cannot be ignored in decision making, even if it is irrelevant. In Simon’s original experiments, participants moved a lever left or right in response to stimuli presented to their left or right ears. Compare Stroop effect . [Named after the US psychologist J(ennings) Richard Simon (born 1929 ), who first reported the effect in articles in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1968 and 1969...

automatic processing

automatic processing n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...more than one sensory channel, but its development is slower and involves much more practice than controlled processing, and once established it is less controllable. The Stroop effect provides a dramatic illustration of automatic processing. Also called automaticity, preconscious processing , or pre-attentive processing . See also absent-mindedness , attention , centipede effect , dual-process model , Humphrey's law , hyper-reflection , mindlessness , open-loop control , principle of least effort , top-down processing...

flanker compatibility effect

flanker compatibility effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...incorrect responses compete with correct ones ( compare Stroop effect ) and that the levels of processing of stimuli deliberately excluded from attention are deeper than required by the task. The effect was first reported by the US psychologists Charles W(alter) Eriksen ( 1923–2018 ) and James E. Hoffman (born 1948 ) in the journal Perception and Psychophysics in 1973 , and by Barbara A(nn) Eriksen (born 1931 ) and Charles W(alter) Eriksen in a second article in the same journal in 1974 , after which it was frequently used to study ...

top-down processing

top-down processing n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1935 ) and David E(verett) Rumelhart ( 1942–2011 ) in their book Exploration in Cognition ( 1975 ). Also called conceptually driven processing . See also analysis by synthesis , automatic processing , constructive memory , constructivism , reconstructive memory , Stroop effect , task-positive network . Compare bottom-up processing , feature detection theory...

cognitive control and consciousness

cognitive control and consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,410 words

...processing. However, it was shown that phenomena considered to be examples of automatic processing, such as the flanker effect and the *Stroop effect , showed a dynamic adjustment to external conditions, corresponding to the notion of control. In particular, some (e.g. Gratton et al. 1992 ) showed an increase in the flanker effect after an incompatible trial, while others (e.g. Logan et al. 1984 ) showed sensitivity of the Stroop effect to the various trial types. Consequently, Tzelgov ( 1997 ) proposed to distinguish between monitoring as the...

synaesthesia

synaesthesia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,850 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that for synaesthetes black graphemes ‘automatically’ induce colour experiences. Interestingly, neither high consistency levels, nor large synaesthetic Stroop effects, ‘prove’ the perceptual reality of synaesthetic colours. One can train people to associate shapes with colours, and with enough training they will be highly consistent in generating colour associations to that shape, and even show large Stroop‐type effects. What sets synaesthetes apart from these trained participants is (1) the absence of an external training regimen and (2) that synaesthetes...

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