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Stephen Girard

(1750–1831)

Stephen Girard was born in Bordeaux, France on 20 May 1750, the son of a French naval officer. He died near Philadelphia on 26 December 1831. Though blind in ...

Girard, Stephen

Girard, Stephen (1750–1831)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
417 words

..., Stephen ( 1750–1831 ) Stephen Girard was born in Bordeaux, France on 20 May 1750 , the son of a French naval officer. He died near Philadelphia on 26 December 1831 . Though blind in one eye from birth, he resolved on a career at sea. At the age of fourteen he sailed as a cabin boy on a trading ship to the West Indies. Remaining in the West Indies for some years, he became involved in trade and was appointed a ship's captain in 1773 , aged twenty-three. On a visit to New York in 1774 , however, he decided to give up the sea and became instead a...

Girard, Stephen

Girard, Stephen (1750–1831)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
579 words

...notably J. P. Morgan . In the 1880s and 1890s Girard's reputation enjoyed a renaissance and he was hailed for a time as one of the fathers of modern American capitalism. Further Reading Haeger, J. D. , Business and Finance in the Early Republic (New York, 1991). Hammond, B. , Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War (Princeton, 1957). Macmaster, J. B. , The Life and Times of Stephen Girard (Philadelphia, 1918). Wildes, H. E. , Lonely Midas: The Story of Stephen Girard (Philadelphia, 1943). Morgen...

Stephen Girard

Stephen Girard  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1750–1831)Stephen Girard was born in Bordeaux, France on 20 May 1750, the son of a French naval officer. He died near Philadelphia on 26 December 1831. Though blind in ...
John Jacob Astor

John Jacob Astor  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1763–1848)US fur trader and financier. He entered the American fur trade and by 1800 had established the beginnings of a commercial empire, with chartered ships plying both the Atlantic and the ...
Windrim, James Hamilton

Windrim, James Hamilton (4 Jan 1840)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
334 words

...Richard Smith Memorial Gateway ( 1897 ) in Fairmount Park. After 1909 he practiced in conjunction with his son John T. Windrim ; one of their most important works was a planned residential complex of 800 houses and service buildings designed for the Girard Estate adjacent to the original Stephen Girard House of 1798 . Bibliography Macmillan Enc. Archit. “ James H. Windrim, ” National Cyclopedia of American Biography , iii (New York, 1893), p. 422 “ James H. Windrim, ” Steel and Garnet , i (1911), pp. 7–8 G. B. Tatum : Penn's Great Town: 250 Years of...

Astor, John Jacob

Astor, John Jacob (1763–1848)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
705 words

...along with Stephen Girard , among the signers of a petition calling on the federal government to establish a new central bank He served as director of the New York branch of the second Bank of the United States from 1816–19 , and was an ally of Girard's during that period. Like Girard, he was a fiscal conservative, but both men were outvoted on key issues, leading to Astor's eventual departure. Astor was an advocate of big capital at a time when there were relatively few large enterprises in the U.S.A. Like his friend and ally Stephen Girard , he believed...

Astor, John Jacob

Astor, John Jacob (1763–1848)   Reference library

Charles Geisst

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...encompassing China, the United States, and Europe. Known for exchanging liquor for furs, Astor gained an unsavory reputation in some quarters. He invested much of his large fortune in real estate in and around New York City. He also became a financier, joining with Stephen Girard, a Philadelphia banker, during the War of 1812 to raise $16 million for the U.S. Treasury—at a substantial profit to themselves. This episode was later cited by politicians as an example of the business elite's taking advantage of the Treasury in times of crisis. In contrast...

Astor, John Jacob

Astor, John Jacob   Reference library

Charles Geisst

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
308 words

...encompassing China, the United States, and Europe. Known for exchanging liquor for furs, Astor gained an unsavory reputation in some quarters. He invested much of his large fortune in real estate in and around New York City . He also became a financier, joining with Stephen Girard , a Philadelphia banker, during the War of 1812 to raise sixteen million dollars for the U.S. Treasury, at a substantial profit to themselves. This episode would later be cited by politicians as an example of the business elite taking advantage of the Treasury in times of...

Otis, Bass

Otis, Bass (17 July 1784)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
655 words

... ( 1823 ; Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.), which was a commission from Joseph Bonaparte ( 1768–1844 ) of his American mistress with their two daughters. Otis also delivered fine post-mortem portraits, exemplified by his rendering of the wealthy philanthropist, Stephen Girard ( 1831 ; Philadelphia, PA, Girard Coll.). Clients felt he provided good likenesses, but there are disparities in the quality of his production. Estimated to have painted over 300 portraits, he was active mainly in Philadelphia, but also in Baltimore, New York, the Boston area, Providence,...

Walter, Thomas U.

Walter, Thomas U. (4 Sept 1804)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,189 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Through connections in city government he won the commission for the Philadelphia County Prison and Debtors Apartment (destr. 1967 ). In 1833 Walter's design for the Girard College for Orphans in Philadelphia won the premium award in what was then the most prestigious architectural competition to have been held in the USA. To honor the French origin of the banker Stephen Girard ( 1750–1831 ), who had bequeathed $2,000,000 to build the college, Walter originally presented an impressive but naive reworking of Anges-Jacques Gabriel 's two massive...

Philadelphia

Philadelphia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
663 words

...was famous not only as a trading post but as a refuge for many diverse sects. In Franklin 's time, Philadelphia saw the decline of the power of the Penn family and of Quaker dominance, as it became noted for its shipping industry and such figures as the wealthy merchant Stephen Girard . Democratic feeling arose during the pre-Revolutionary period, when the city assumed leadership through the writings and actions of such men as Franklin and John Dickinson , and the gathering of the two Continental Congresses at Independence Hall, where the Declaration of...

McLean, John

McLean, John (11 Mar. 1785)   Reference library

Michael B. Dougan

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
838 words

...Activities ). McLean saw nothing injudicious in his quest, or as a devout Methodist, any conflict between politics and religion. He did not participate in Smith v. Swormstedt ( 1853 ), occasioned by the sectional division of the Methodist church, but agreed that Stephen Girard lawfully could ban clergy from his academy ( Vidal etal v. Philadelphia , 1844 ). McLean began his judicial career as a nationalist, concurring with Marshall in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia ( 1831 ) and Worcester v. Georgia ( 1832 ) ( see Cherokee Cases ). He...

Wylton, Thomas

Wylton, Thomas (d. c.1327)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
921 words

...del tempo nelle Quaestiones super Physicam di Thomas Wylton e di Giovanni di Jandun’, Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale , vol.1, no.2 (1990), pp.491–548 (edn pp. 515–27). Utrum plura accidentia eiusdem speciei possint esse simul in eodem subiecto , ed. Girard Etzkorn and Robert Andrews , ‘Tortosa Cathedral 88: A “Thomas Wylton” Manuscript and the Question on the Compatibility of Multiple Accidents in the Same Subject’, Medievalia Philosophica Polonorum, vol.32 (1994), pp.57–99 (edn pp. 65–99). An contingit dare ultimum rei...

Rodney, Caesar Augustus

Rodney, Caesar Augustus (1772–1824)   Reference library

Adam Nadeau

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the Philadelphia Mayor’s Court, Rodney unsuccessfully defended the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainders in their strike to secure stable wages—an effort that likely put him at odds with the financial interests of the entrepreneurs that supported his practice, such as Stephen Girard ( 1750–1831 ) and Éleuthère Irénée du Pont ( 1771–1834 ). Appointed attorney general by Jefferson in 1807 , Rodney stayed on for reappointment by James Madison in 1809 . But family pressures and financial woes, caused in part by the neglect of his practice, forced him to...

Rush, William

Rush, William (1756–1833)   Reference library

Alan Seaburg

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...values represented by such symbols as Liberty, Revolution, and the American Eagle. Unfortunately, however, almost all of his wooden figureheads deteriorated over time and only a few have survived. His contemporaries soon recognized his talent and one of his best customers was Stephen Girard, the city’s wealthiest citizen due to his shipping, construction, and banking interests. In 1794 , after Congress had authorized the creation of the US Navy, Rush was commissioned to design and carve figureheads for several ships to be built at Philadelphia as well as at...

Vengeance

Vengeance   Reference library

Robert Andrew Cathey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,431 words

... John T. McNeill , vol. 1, pp. 464–534. Library of Christian Classics 20. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977. See esp. p. 504. Fairweather, E. R. , ed. A Scholastic Miscellany: Anselm to Ockham . London: Student Christian Movement, 1956. Girard, René . Things Hidden since the Foundation of the World . Translated by Stephen Bann and Michael Metteer . London: Athlone, 1987. Gorringe, Timothy . God’s Just Vengeance: Crime, Violence and the Rhetoric of Salvation . Cambridge Studies in Ideology and Religion 9. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Hanson...

Chatton, Walter

Chatton, Walter (c.1285–1343)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,743 words

...26 (1966), pp. 212–88 (text: pp. 234–66). Reportatio super sententias , 4 vols, ed. Joseph C. Wey and Girard J. Etzkorn (Toronto, 2002–2005). Other Relevant Works Sharpe, Richard , A Handlist of the Latin Writers of Great Britain and Ireland before 1540 (Turnhout, 1997), pp. 730–31. Further Reading Brown, Stephen F. , ‘Walter Chatton's Lectura and William of Ockham's Quaestiones In Libros Physicorum Aristotelis ’, in William A. Frank and Girard J. Etzkorn (eds), Essays Honoring Allan B. Wolter (St Bonaventure, New York, 1985), pp. 81–115....

Philanthropy

Philanthropy   Reference library

Thomas Adam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... United States to found what became the Smithsonian Institution (the country received the money in 1835 )—were still the exception. In fact, before the Civil War there were only a handful of such large gifts, including Stephen Girard ’s bequest of $6 million to local charities, the cities of Philadelphia and New Orleans , and Girard College, a boarding school in Philadelphia that received a share of $2 million in 1831 ; John Lowell Jr.’s bequest of some $250,000 for the Lowell Institute in Massachusetts in the 1830 s; and the bequest by Benjamin...

Haiti

Haiti   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,386 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Domingo Revolution . 2nd ed. New York: Vintage, 1963. A classic account of the Haitian war of independence. McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass . New York: Norton, 1991. One chapter of this biography deals specifically with Douglass's role as ambassador to Haiti. Philippe R. ...

Avignon

Avignon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...until 1503 , leaving a deep mark on the town by his administration ( foundations and university reforms) before becoming pope as Julius II . Fresco by Matteo Giovanetti of Viterbo in St Martial's chapel at the Palace of the Popes, Avignon. 1344–1345. J. Girard , DHGE , 5, 1931, 1121-1142. J. Girard , Évocation du vieil Avignon , Paris, 1958. B. Guillemain , La Cour pontificale d'Avignon , Paris, 1962. G. Mollat , The Popes at Avignon 1305-1378 , London, 1963. Y. Renouard , The Avignon Papacy 1305-1403 , Hamden, 1970. Histoire d'Avignon ,...

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