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Stephan curve

The curve on a graph, first described by Robert Stephan in 1943, showing the fall in pH below the critical level of pH 5.5, at which demineralization of enamel occurs following the intake ...

Stephan curve

Stephan curve   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... curve A graph of the pH of dental plaque over a time-course of 10–20 minutes in response to different foods, used to assess the acidogenic potential of different foods, and hence their likely action in promoting dental...

Stephan’s curve

Stephan’s curve   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
146 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Stephan’s curve The curve on a graph, first described by Robert Stephan in 1943 , showing the fall in pH below the critical level of pH 5.5, at which demineralization of enamel occurs following the intake of fermentable carbohydrates , acidic liquids, or sugar in the presence of acidogenic bacteria . After consumption, there is an elimination of the acid and a return to normal saliva or plaque pH, at which point repair of any destruction of the enamel structure takes place (remineralization). Repeated intakes of fermentable carbohydrates...

Stephan curve

Stephan curve  

The curve on a graph, first described by Robert Stephan in 1943, showing the fall in pH below the critical level of pH 5.5, at which demineralization of enamel occurs following the intake of ...
demineralization

demineralization  

A loss or removal of mineral salts from the tissues of the body. It occurs in dentine and enamel as part of the carious process. Enamel starts to demineralize when the plaque or saliva pH drops below ...
Erich Mendelsohn

Erich Mendelsohn  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1887–1953).German-born naturalized American architect. He started as an Expressionist, producing many images of structures with streamlined curves while serving in the German Imperial Army ...
citric acid

citric acid  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An organic acid found naturally in citrus fruits. Citric acid is formed in the first stage of the Krebs cycle, the important energy-producing cycle in the body.
caries

caries  

n. decay and crumbling of the substance of a tooth (see dental caries) or a bone. —carious adj.
glycolysis

glycolysis  

(gly-kol-i-sis)the conversion of glucose, by a series of ten enzyme-catalysed reactions, to lactic acid, with the production of energy in the form of ATP.
glycolysis

glycolysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
57 words

.... It may occur anaerobically with the production of lactate ( lactic acid ) or aerobically with the formation of pyruvate. It occurs in the mouth when sugar and bacteria are present and therefore increases the risk of caries when occurring frequently. See also Stephan’s curve...

demineralization

demineralization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
49 words

...demineralization n. A loss or removal of mineral salts from the tissues of the body. It occurs in dentine and enamel as part of the carious process. Enamel starts to demineralize when the plaque or saliva pH drops below 5.5. See also Stephan’s curve...

citric acid

citric acid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
90 words

...organic acid found naturally in citrus fruits. It is also added to canned foods and some carbonated drinks to improve the flavour by increasing the acidity. This can result in erosion of the teeth if there is contact over a frequent or prolonged period of time. See also Stephan’s curve . Citric acid has also been used at the time of surgery to ‘condition’ periodontally involved root surfaces in order to expose connective tissue in the cementum and promote tissue healing and...

Mendelsohn, Eric(h)

Mendelsohn, Eric(h) (1887–1953)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
349 words

...with streamlined curves while serving in the German Imperial Army ( 1914–18 ). His Einstein Tower, Potsdam ( 1919–24 ), resembles aspects of the early typological sketches: built of concrete-rendered brick and block , it had the appearance of being made of reinforced concrete , and is popularly believed to be so constructed. The plan owed much to South-German Baroque staircase designs of C18. Expressionist, too, was the Steinberg-Hermann Hat Factory, Luckenwalde ( 1921–3 ), with its jagged, angular forms, but curved walls were also used in...

Eichentopf, Johann Heinrich

Eichentopf, Johann Heinrich (1678)   Reference library

Phillip T. Young

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
299 words

...Bach’s time. Tradition has it that J.S. Bach first suggested to Eichentopf the curved tenor oboe with flared bell (i.e. oboe da caccia); a surviving example ( DK.K.m ) is dated 1724. Eichentopf also produced brass instruments and was apparently a dealer in string instruments. Bach’s close friend, the luthier Johann Christian Hoffmann, was godfather to Eichentopf’s daughter Johanna Christina. Other godparents to Eichentopf’s children were the brass instrument maker Christoph Stephan Scheinhardt (1674–1720), the instrument dealer Matthäus Hirschstein ( c...

Rockburne, Dorothea

Rockburne, Dorothea (c.1932)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
412 words

...School. There, one of her professors encourages her to attend Black Mountain College, the progressive school in North Carolina, where she moved in 1950 . There, she studied art with Franz Kline , Philip Guston , Jack Tworkov and Esteban Vicente ; music with John Cage , Stephan Wolpe and Lew Harrison ; dance with Merce Cunningham and Katherine Liz ; as well as studying several other subjects with the renowned teachers in residence. She also met fellow students Robert Rauschenberg , Cy Twombly and John Chamberlain . She participated in...

Basset horn

Basset horn   Reference library

Nicholas Shackleton and Albert R. Rice

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,834 words

...England, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, and Russia. Among these makers, nine of the larger 19th-century firms, Streitwolf, Berthold, Stephan Koch Jr, Nechwalsky, Leopold Uhlmann, Stengel, Skorra, Seidel, Heckel, and Mollenhauer, made both basset horns and bass clarinets, foretelling the eventual prominence of the latter instrument. A third curved basset horn by the Mayrhofers ( D.P.o ) and another anonymous curved basset horn ( D.B.im ) are now known as basset clarinets because they are pitched in A. Thus, the distinction between the basset horn and a...

caries

caries   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
1,038 words
Illustration(s):
5

...of the associated biofilm , will cause loss or gain of minerals from the tooth, depending on the decrease or increase in pH respectively, cumulatively resulting in a net loss of minerals, dissolution of dental hard tissues, and the formation of a carious lesion ( See also Stephan’s curve ). This is represented by the equation: [ Ca 5 ( PO 4 ) OH ⇦⇨ 5Ca 2+ + 3 PO 4 3+ + OH − ] if the pH remains below the critical level for an extended period of time there is a marked loss of mineral below the tooth surface, resulting in the appearance of a white spot lesion ...

Pilgram, Anton

Pilgram, Anton (b c.1450)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,517 words
Illustration(s):
1

... : Die Kanzel und der Orgelfuss zu St Stephan in Wien , ii of Österreichs Kunstdenkmäler (Vienna, 1925) W. Vöge : ‘ Konrad Meits vermeintliche Jugendwerke ’, Jb. Kstwiss. , iv (1927), pp. 24–38 H. Tietze : ‘ Geschichte und Beschreibung des St Stephansdomes in Wien ’, Österreich. Ksttop ., xxiii (1931), pp. 34–8, 197–8, 310–16 R. Feuchtmüller : Die spätgotische Architektur und Anton Pilgram: Gedanken zu neuen Forschungen (Vienna, 1951) K. Oettinger : Anton Pilgram und die Bildhauer von St Stephan (Vienna, 1951) B. Grimschitz : ‘ Die Risse von...

Nördlingen

Nördlingen   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,541 words

... and intersecting vault springers, they are found in the work of Weyrer's master, Burkhard Engelberg , although Weyrer's west-gallery vault design with curved ribs seems to have been derived from the choir side aisles of SS Ägid and Koloman at Steyr, designed by Hans Puchspaum . Some differences of detail may, however, be explained by the change of designers: the choir windows have geometric tracery of curved, foiled triangles and squares, probably designed by the Ulm masters, whereas the mouchette tracery of the nave, like that in the nave at St Michael,...

Nördlingen

Nördlingen   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., and intersecting vault springers, they are found in the work of Weyrer’s master, Burkhard Engelberg, although Weyrer’s west-gallery vault design with curved ribs seems to have been derived from the choir side aisles of SS Ägid and Koloman at Steyr, designed by Hans Puchspaum. Some differences of detail may, however, be explained by the change of designers: the choir windows have geometric tracery of curved, foiled triangles and squares, probably designed by the Ulm masters, whereas the mouchette tracery of the nave, like that in the nave at St Michael,...

Mendelsohn, Erich

Mendelsohn, Erich (21 March 1887)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,367 words

...and the Tel Aviv Chug in Mandate Palestine, ” Archit. Hist. , 39 (1996), pp. 147–80 K. James : Erich Mendelsohn and the Architecture of German Modernism (Cambridge, 1997) R. Stephan , ed.: Erich Mendelsohn: Architekt, 1887–1953: Gebaute Welten: Arbeiten für Europa, Palästina und Amerika (Ostfildern-Ruit, 1998) B. Zevi : Erich Mendelsohn: The Complete Works (Boston, 1999) R. Stephan , ed.: Erich Mendelsohn: Wesen, Werk, Wirkung (Ostfildern, 2006) Ita...

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