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St Stephen's Day

(26 December). The day after Christmas Day, or ‘Boxing Day’ to most of us, St Stephen's Day is nowadays subsumed into the general two-day Christmas period and has little ...

St Stephen's Day

St Stephen's Day   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... Stephen's Day (26 December). The day after Christmas Day, or ‘Boxing Day’ to most of us, St Stephen's Day is nowadays subsumed into the general two-day Christmas period and has little character of its own. Boxing Day derives its name from a previous custom on the day of asking and giving ‘Christmas boxes’, i.e. presents, either money or in kind. The ‘box’ was originally the receptacle into which the money was placed, but it gradually came to refer to the gift itself. There are strong historical traditions of gift-giving on Christmas Day and New Year 's Day,...

St Stephen's Day

St Stephen's Day noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
19 words
St Stephen's Day

St Stephen's Day  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(26 December).The day after Christmas Day, or ‘Boxing Day’ to most of us, St Stephen's Day is nowadays subsumed into the general two-day Christmas period and has little character of its own. Boxing ...
The Bible in Literature

The Bible in Literature   Reference library

David Jasper

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...a cosmic humanity’. In his late poem ‘The Everlasting Gospel’ ( c. 1818), Blake identifies the High Priest Caiaphas with the bishops and hierarchy of the Church, suggesting that … Caiaphas was in his own Mind A benefactor to Mankind: Both read the Bible day & night, But thou read'st black where I read white. ‘Pandemonium’ from the illustrations by John Martin (1789–1854) to Milton's Paradise Lost. The Royal Collection © 2000 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The most important books of the Bible for Blake are...

4 The History of the Book in Byzantium

4 The History of the Book in Byzantium   Reference library

N. G. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,221 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the use of the term by scribes is proof that some clients had a high regard for their services, and many extant MSS are marvels of elegant script with a uniformly high standard maintained for several hundred pages—a striking example is the Euclid written for Arethas in 888 by Stephen the cleric (who as it happens does not call himself a calligrapher in the colophon). It is also clear that, for biblical and other religious texts, there was an expectation that formal script would be used, and generally such books, even if not elegantly written, exhibit a...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

M. Antoni J. Üçerler

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,116 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561 , Luís Fróis reports that a printed summary of Christian doctrine was read to the local people ‘in their own language’ (Wicki, v. 273; Saldanha, 7–9). No copy of this work (probably a small booklet) is known to have survived. There are copies, however, of the books written by Thomas Stephens , an English Jesuit and pioneer in the study of Indian languages. The first was his ‘Story of Christ’ ( Krista...

Acts

Acts   Reference library

Loveday Alexander and Loveday Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
42,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...typology, and one well adapted to the dramatic scenario of Stephen's speech, which understands Moses as the prototype of Jesus, sent by God as saviour of his people but rejected by those he came to save. ( 7:30–8 ) Moses Selected Moses' rejection by his own people is placed in stark juxtaposition with his call by God. vv. 30–4 extract the key statements from the much longer narrative of Ex 3, 4 . The assimilation of Horeb and Sinai ( cf. v. 30 with Ex 3:1 ) was well established by Luke's day: the ‘mountain of God’ ( Ex 3:1 was pre-eminently Sinai, and...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and King's College, Aberdeen, 1495–1860 (1893) , W. I. Addison , A Roll of the Graduates of the University of Glasgow from 1727 to 1897 (1898) , J. M. Anderson , Early Records of the University of St Andrews: The Graduate Roll, 1413–1579, and the Matriculation Roll, 1473–1579 (1926) , and J. M. Anderson , The Matriculation Roll of the University of St Andrews, 1747–1897 (1905). The only other British universities that were founded before the civic universities of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were London ( 1826 ) and Durham ( 1837 ). During...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., for the Domesday Book records little wood or pasture here) that its wild state is no longer remembered in its names. Ecclesiastical evidence provides further and firmer clues. A cult of St Kew flourished among the people of this landscape at least as early as ad 900 , when a list of saints, a very rare survival, in all probability locates it here; a life of St Sampson of Dol, probably written in the 8th century, refers to this region as Tricurius, now Trigg. Just to the north of Camelford is a monument commemorating a Christian inhabitant of the area...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...minority until well into the 20 th century, and university libraries were accordingly slow to develop. Inflation soared as employers increased wages to keep tradesmen from the diggings. In 1850 , skilled tradesmen could earn 5 s . or 6 s . a day; by 1855 , compositors on the Melbourne Herald were being paid £1 a day. Melbourne, the city hardest hit, embarked on a series of major public works—a Public Library, an Exhibition Building, a University—to bring a sense of order to what was essentially a frontier town devastated by the stampede to the diggings. By...

The Reformation to 1700

The Reformation to 1700   Reference library

David Wright

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,449 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
14

...standard for ignorance. The cause of vernacular scripture for Scotland was eloquently championed from the Continent by Alexander Alesius, an Edinburgh native won to Lutheranism in St Andrews, in an appeal to James V. Reading from a chained Bible in the crypt of Old St Paul's, a painting by Sir George Harvey. The onlookers include the bearded Bishop of Winchester, Stephen Gardiner in conversation with the Vicar General, Lord Cromwell. Hulton Getty. In England, policies concerning the free availability of English Bibles varied with...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Boyce were modestly successful in the mid-eighteenth century, but thereafter every promising British composer somehow became sidetracked: Stephen Storace, William *Shield , Thomas Attwood ( 1765–1838 ), and Henry *Bishop moved into charming but inconsequential English *opera , Samuel Wesley into *church music . Thomas *Linley and G. F. Pinto ( 1785–1806 ) died young, John Field ( 1782–1837 ) left for St Petersburg , and William *Crotch 's interests became narrowly academic. There was hope for a native genre, the *glee , its practitioners...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the Willughby's [ sic ] of Wollaton taken out of the Pedigree, old letters, and old Books of Accounts in my brother Sir Thomas Willoughby's study, Dec a. d. 1702 ’, written by Cassandra Willoughby , Duchess of Chandos—can be used to illuminate, in her own words ‘the day‐to‐day activities, attitudes, and social customs which underlay decisions about the planning of Wollaton Hall and buildings like it’. Documents like this, originally kept in the muniment rooms of the houses themselves, are now scattered in a wide variety of repositories. Some remain...

The Winter’s Tale

The Winter’s Tale   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,428 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( 1980 ) for the BBC series remains its most satisfactory screen incarnation: for its time it was adventurous in its use of the medium, with stylized settings and considerable use of close-up asides to camera. Anthony Davies Recent major editions Recent major editions Stephen Orgel (Oxford, 1996); J. H. P. Pafford (Arden, 1963); Ernest Schanzer (New Penguin, 1969) Some representative criticism Barber, C. L. , in Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy (1959) Bartholomeusz, Dennis , ‘ The Winter’s Tale’ on the Stage in England and America, 1611–1976 (1982)...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...caskets, a motif also available to him in many forms, in John Gower ’s Confessio amantis , in Boccaccio ’s Decameron , and in the anonymous Gesta Romanorum . It is possible that Shakespeare was not the first playwright to combine the pound of flesh and the casket plots: Stephen Gosson ’s The Anatomy of Abuses ( 1579 ) refers to a now lost play called The Jew , which represents, he reports, ‘the greediness of worldly choosers and the bloody minds of usurers’. Whether or not this vaguely described play served as a source for The Merchant of Venice ,...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...conservationist climate since then, with traffic‐free zones, archaeological monitoring of development, and housing on a more human scale, will have turned the tide. See Geoffrey Martin , The Town (A Visual History of Modern Britain series, ed. Jack Simmons (1961) , and Stephen Porter , Exploring Urban History: Sources for Local Historians (1990). The most recent guide to the history of English, Welsh, and Scottish towns is The Cambridge Urban History of Britain , under the general editorship of Peter Clark (3 vols, 2000 ; i ( 600–1540 ), ed. D....

Jihad and the Modern World

Jihad and the Modern World   Reference library

Jackson Sherman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,768 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Qur'ân. Perhaps more than any other Muslim thinker in modern times, his interpretive efforts have succeeded in sustaining the argument that the heirs of the classical tradition have bowed to the modern secular state's attempt to “domesticate” Islam, to borrow the term of Stephen L. Carter. According to Carter, in response to religion's higher calling, on the basis of which it may oppose the material interests of the state, “the state tries to move religion from a position in which it threatens the state to a position in which it supports the state.” 22 ...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...playlet by Matthew Gwinne , Tres sibyllae , performed before King James at St John’s College, Oxford, in 1605 . The three sibyls of the title reminded James that they had once prophesied endless dominion to Banquo’s descendants, and saluted him in turn with the words ‘Hail, thou who rulest Scotland!’ ‘Hail, thou who rulest England!’ ‘Hail, thou who rulest Ireland!’ (cf. 1.3.46–8). Synopsis: 1.1 Three witches agree to meet again on a heath in order to accost Macbeth after the day’s battle. 1.2 King Duncan, fighting against the rebel Macdonald , receives a...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...some Boston and Cambridge printers produced their own *almanacs and other cheap books as early as 1640 , when the *Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in British North America. One of the eleven known surviving copies of the *Bay Psalm Book , printed by Stephen *Day at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1640. The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (Arch. G. e. 40) The Licensing Act ( see printing act ) of 1662 , however, gave the London *Stationers’ Company a royal *patent on most of the significant works and genres, including...

The New Testament

The New Testament   Reference library

David Parker

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,025 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...It was in the monastery of St Catherine on Mt Sinai that, in 1844, he was shown leaves of a magnificent codex which, as it transpired, contained the entire Bible and had been produced in the mid-fourth century. Thus of a stature and age comparable to Codex Vaticanus, though of a poorer textual quality, it was close enough to it to add great weight to the belief that this text was much better than any other available. Tischendorf's role in subsequent events, including the removal of part of this manuscript to Leipzig, and part to St Petersburg (whence it came...

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