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St Augustine

The oldest city in the United States, in northeastern Florida, founded in 1565 by the Spanish explorer Pedro Menendez de Aviles. It is located near the place where Ponce de ...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St (604)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
124 words

..., St (d. 26 May, between 604 and 609 ) First archbishop of Canterbury. He was prior of Pope Gregory 's monastery of St Andrew in Rome and in 596 was sent by that pope with some 40 monks to preach the gospel in England, arriving there in 597 . He was favourably received by King Æthelbert of Kent, who was afterwards converted to Christianity and gave Augustine a see (i.e. official seat as bishop) at Canterbury. Augustine was consecrated ‘Bishop of the English’ at Arles. He founded the monastery of Christ Church at Canterbury, and a number of...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St ((Aurelius Augustinus))   Reference library

John F. Matthews

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
667 words

... Augustine: The Confessions (1993) and R. P. H. Green, Augustine, De Doctrina Christiana (1995). Consult also H.-I. Marrou , St Augustin et la fin de la culture antique , 4th edn. (1958); P. Courcelle , Les Confessions de St Augustin dans la tradition littéraire (1963); G. Bonner , St Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies (1963); P. Brown , Augustine of Hippo (1967); H. Chadwick , Augustine (1986); C. Kirwan , Augustine (1989); E. Stump and N. Kretzmann (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Augustine (2001); J. J. O’Donnell , Augustine,...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St (354–430)([People])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
113 words

..., St [People] ( 354–430 ) One of the early Christian leaders and writers known as the Fathers of the Church. He is often remembered for praying in his Confessions ( c. 400 ): ‘Give me chastity and continency, but not yet.’ > Mentioned in the context of something good that is promised in the future, but not yet delivered The computers, we were told, would be able to swiftly and easily examine all ballots, rather than just a sample, and give a full and fair distribution of votes. However, this is true only in theory. Like St Augustine and virtue it...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St (d. c.604)   Reference library

Audrey MacDonald

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
397 words

..., St ( d. c. 604 ) . Prior in the pope’s own monastery, Augustine was chosen by Gregory the Great to lead an evangelistic mission to the Anglo-Saxons. On the journey, his companions sent Augustine back to Rome to express their growing apprehension. Gregory returned him with messages of encouragement, and his authority confirmed as their abbot. In 597 they landed on Thanet in Kent, where Æthelbert was the most powerful king south of the Humber, and his Frankish wife Bertha was a Christian. Fearing witchcraft, the superstitious Æthelbert...

St Augustine

St Augustine   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
841 words

...A. C. Manucy : The Houses of St Augustine; Notes on the Architecture from 1565 to 1821 (St Augustine, 1962) A. C. Manucy : Sixteenth-Century St Augustine: The People and Their Homes (Gainesville, 1997) E. K. Gordon : Florida's Colonial Architectural Heritage (Gainesville, 2002) S. Brooke : The Majesty of St Augustine (Gretna, LA, 2005) S. Rajtar : A Guide to Historic St Augustine, Florida (Charleston, SC, 2007) Sandra...

St. Augustine

St. Augustine   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

.... Augustine the oldest city in the United States, in northeastern Florida, founded in 1565 by the Spanish explorer Pedro Menendez de Aviles . It is located near the place where Ponce de Leon, who discovered Florida, landed in 1513 . Between 1672 and 1696 Spain authorized the building of the Castillo de San Marcos , which still stands as the oldest masonry fort in the country, in order to fend off attacks from the north. In 1702–03 St. Augustine turned away the South Carolinians, and in 1740 the city repelled an attack by James Oglethorpe , the...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St (354–430)   Reference library

John F. Matthews

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
507 words

..., St ( Aurelius Augustinus ) ( ad 354–430 ) was born at Thagaste (mod. Souk Ahras, Algeria), son of Patricius, a modest town councillor of pagan beliefs, and a dominant Catholic mother, Monica. Educated at Thagaste, Madauros, and Carthage, he taught rhetoric at Thagaste, Carthage, and Rome and ( 384–6 ) as public orator at Milan, then the capital of the emperor Valentinian II. Patronized at Rome by Symmachus, the pagan orator, he hoped, by an advantageous marriage (to which he sacrificed his concubine, the mother of a son, Adeodatus—d. c .390) to...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St ([Na])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
70 words

..., St [Na] Church Father , born c . ad 354 , who, after a varied life as a teacher and philosopher, was ordained bishop of Hippo, Africa, in ad 395 . His letters, polemics, and theological and philosophical works transformed the Christianity of the west, and his autobiographical Confessions ( c . ad 400 ) inspired generations of writers. He died c . ad 430 in the early stages of the Vandal conquest of...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St   Quick reference

John F. Matthews

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
507 words

..., St ( Aurelius Augustinus ) ( ad 354–430 ), was born at Thagaste (mod. Souk Ahras, Algeria), son of Patricius, a modest town councillor of pagan beliefs, and a dominant Catholic mother, Monica. Educated at Thagaste, Madauros, and Carthage, he taught rhetoric at Thagaste, Carthage, and Rome and ( 384–6 ) as public orator at Milan, then the capital of the emperor Valentinian II . Patronized at Rome by Symmachus , the pagan orator, he hoped, by an advantageous marriage (to which he sacrificed his concubine, the mother of a son, Adeodatus—d. c. 390 )...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
482 words

..., St ( ad 354–430 ), b. at Thagaste , son of Patricius , a modest town councillor of pagan beliefs, and a dominant Catholic mother, Monica . Educated at Thagaste, Madauros, and Carthage, he taught rhetoric at Thagaste, Carthage, and Rome and ( 384–6 ) as public orator at Mediolanum (mod. Milan), then the capital of the emperor Valentinian II . Patronized at Rome by Symmachus, the pagan orator, he hoped, by an advantageous marriage (to which he sacrificed his concubine, the mother of a son) to join the ‘aristocracy of letters’ typical of his age. At...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St (354–430)   Quick reference

Cyril Barrett

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
307 words

..., St ( 354–430 ) Theologian and political philosopher . Augustine’s political theory is incidental to his theology and philosophy of history. The principal source is De Civitate Dei (The City of God), written in response to those who attributed the fall of Rome ( ad 410 ) to the abolition of pagan worship. This occasioned a sweeping account of the historical roles of Church and State, and a philosophico‐theological discussion of the relationship between them. Augustine postulates two symbolic cities, Jerusalem (the City of God) and Babylon. These...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St (354–430)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
122 words

..., St ( 354–430 . Christian thinker of major importance thoughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance . Important as far as the West is concerned for his exploration of Christianity in Neoplatonic categories, he was influential also in his insistence on the idea of a single creative principle in the universe (over against the Manichaeans) and on the absolute dependence of the soul on the saving grace of God (over against Pelagius). Influential too were his autobiographical Confessions , his lengthy account of worldly and other-worldly happiness in De...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St   Reference library

Christopher Kirwan

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,985 words

...it does mean that sins cannot be exculpated by their good consequences. Augustine doggedly inferred that lies, being sinful, are never justified. But like St Paul disavowing ‘Let us do ill that good may come’ (Romans 3: 8), he did not pause to ask how sins or ill deeds are to be recognized: homicide, for example, he thought only sometimes sinful, because it is permitted to properly authorized soldiers ( Contra Faustum ( 400 ), 22. 70) and executioners ( City of God , 1. 21). Augustine shared the asceticism common among Christian and pagan intellectuals of...

Augustine, St

Augustine, St   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
213 words

..., St ( d. c. 604 ). Augustine was chosen by Gregory the Great to lead an evangelistic mission to the Anglo‐Saxons. In 597 they landed on Thanet in Kent, where Æthelbert was the most powerful king south of the Humber, and his Frankish wife Bertha was a Christian. Impressed by their sincerity, Æthelbert supplied them with food, a house in Canterbury, use of an old Roman church, and permission to preach. Bede records that Æthelbert himself was ultimately baptized. Augustine returned to Arles, in Gaul, for episcopal consecration, after which he is...

St Augustine Gospels

St Augustine Gospels   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Augustine Gospels Illuminated manuscript probably dating from the 6th century ad . The Gospels (Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll., Lib. MS. 286) were given to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1575 by Matthew Parker , Archbishop of Canterbury ( reg 1559–75 ), and they may have come to Canterbury with St Augustine in 597 . The manuscript is not certainly part of Thomas of Elmham’s list of books kept on the altar of St Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury ( c. 1414–18 ; Libri missi a Gregorio ad Augustinum , Cambridge, Trinity Hall, MS. 1), which were...

Augustine of Canterbury, St

Augustine of Canterbury, St (604×9)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
102 words

... of Canterbury, St (d. 604×9 ) First archbishop of *Canterbury . *Pope Gregory I the Great sent Augustine as Rome’s first missionary to the *Anglo-Saxons in 597 . King *Æthelbert of Kent welcomed Augustine and his small band of monks to Canterbury, where they established a religious centre. Æthelbert became the first AS king to convert to Christianity, and the pope designated Augustine the archbishop of England. Mel Storm N. Brooks , The Early History of the Church of Canterbury: Christ Church from 597–1066 (1984). M. A. Green , Saint...

Augustine of Canterbury, St

Augustine of Canterbury, St (c.605)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
102 words

... of Canterbury, St (died c .605 ) The first Archbishop of Canterbury. He was chosen (596) by Pope Gregory the Great to convert the English to Christianity. With forty monks Augustine came first to Kent (597) and converted King Ethelbert, whose wife was already a Christian. Consecrated archbishop (597), Augustine organized the church into twelve dioceses (598) but failed at a meeting with the Celtic bishops in 603 to resolve the differences between the Roman and Celtic churches, although these differences were resolved at the Synod of Whitby ...

St Augustine, Master of

St Augustine, Master of (fl c.1490)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
349 words

... Augustine, Master of ( fl c.1490 ). Painter, active in the southern Netherlands. He is named after the fragmentary St Augustine altarpiece, the central panel of which (1.30×1.53 m; New York, Cloisters) shows scenes from the Life of St Augustine, culminating in his coronation as Bishop of Hippo. The right wing (1.36×0.65 m; Dublin, N.G.) shows St Augustine's Vision of St Jerome and the Death-bed of St Augustine. Another cut-down fragment depicting SS Augustine and Paul (990×665 mm; Aachen, Mus. B.-A.) matches the Dublin wing. To this corpus, Friedländer added...

Confessions of St Augustine

Confessions of St Augustine   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
69 words

... of St Augustine *Augustine of Hippo’s spiritual autobiography, written 397– c .401 . Striking for its psychological penetration, the initial narrative of his conversion to Christianity shifts in the last four (of thirteen) books to a meditation on memory, time, and Creation. Andrew Gillett P. Brown , Augustine of Hippo: A Biography ( 2 2000), 151–75. P. Courcelle , Les Confessions de Saint Augustin dans la tradition littéraire: antécédents et postérité ...

Augustine of Hippo, St

Augustine of Hippo, St (354–430)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
429 words

... of Hippo, St ( 354–430 ) Major Christian philosopher and theologian and the key figure in the transition from pagan to specifically Christian philosophy. Born at Tagaste in North Africa of a pagan father and a Christian mother (St Monica), Augustine studied rhetoric at Carthage, and taught in Rome and Milan. After periods believing in manichaeanism , scepticism , and Neoplatonism , he converted to Christianity in 386 , at the age of 31. Augustine found the theology of Christianity prefigured in Neoplatonism: what Christianity added was the...

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