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Sir John Hawkwood

Subject: Literature

(d. 1394) A famous military commander whose considerable achievements feature in chronicles from England, France, and Italy, including those of Froissart. As a condottiere, he ...

Hawkwood, Sir John

Hawkwood, Sir John (d. 1394)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

..., Sir John ( d. 1394 ), a famous condottiere or military captain, ‘a fine English knight’, according to Froissart . He fought in Gascony as the leader of a troop of English mercenaries known as the White Company. They moved to Italy, and fought for various cities and princes. The force was a formidable and disciplined one, consisting of a thousand lances and two thousand infantry, and specializing in ruthless night raids. In 1368 he entered the service of the Visconti at Milan, and married a daughter of Bernabò Visconti ( Barnabo Viscounte ). He...

Hawkwood, Sir John

Hawkwood, Sir John (d. 1394)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., Sir John ( d. 1394 ), English soldier and proto- condottiere . From 1359 Hawkwood led a mercenary company in Europe, particularly Italy. He fought for a bewildering number of masters in the wars between Italy's city states, the papacy, and various foreign interlopers. In 1377 he entered the service of Florence and remained loyal until he retired, wealthy and admired, particularly for the neat way he sold out his own followers at the end. Before that he had paid them regularly and was therefore not troubled by the usual mutinies, earning a...

Hawkwood, Sir John

Hawkwood, Sir John   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
100 words

..., Sir John or (Italian) Giovanni Acuto ( c. 1320–1394 ), English condottiere , a native of Essex who fought in France in the Hundred Years War, and in 1350 moved with his armed band to Italy, where he spent 35 years in the service of various rulers, including Pisa, Milan, Padua, and the papacy. In 1377 he entered the service of Florence, where he became a citizen with tax exemption for life. On his death he was granted a state funeral and a frescoed monument (replaced in 1436 by Paolo Uccello 's fresco) in Florence Cathedral. Dictionary of...

Hawkwood, Sir John

Hawkwood, Sir John (1394)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
94 words

..., Sir John (d. 1394 ) A famous military commander whose considerable achievements feature in chronicles from England, France, and Italy, including those of Froissart . As a condottiere , he was the leader of the body of English mercenaries known as the White Company and fought for one Italian city or another, and for pope or prince, from 1360 to 1390 . He concluded his career as commander in chief of the Florentine forces, and died at Florence. His body was returned to England. Paolo Uccello painted a commemorative equestrian portrait of him in 1436...

Sir John Hawkwood

Sir John Hawkwood  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(d. 1394)A famous military commander whose considerable achievements feature in chronicles from England, France, and Italy, including those of Froissart. As a condottiere, he was the leader of the ...
Barnabo Viscounte

Barnabo Viscounte  

(d. 1385), ‘god of delit and scourge of Lumbardye’, is the subject of a one-stanza tragedy told by the Monk (VII.2399–406). He was ousted from power in May 1385 by ...
Battle of Canturino

Battle of Canturino  

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Overview Page
The battle of Canturino was fought on 22 April 1363 between a predominantly German mercenary army in the employ of Milan and a largely English mercenary force in the service ...
Battle of Castagnaro

Battle of Castagnaro  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In the wake of their victory at Brentelle in June 1386, the Paduans sought to keep the upper hand in their war against Verona by hiring the celebrated English captain ...
Alba Societas

Alba Societas  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Also known as La Compagna Bianca, the Alba Comitiva, and the White Company, the Alba Societas was a mercenary company operating in Italy in the 1360s recruited from English, German ...
Battle of Alessandria

Battle of Alessandria  

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Overview Page
The town of Alessandria is situated on the Tanaro River in Piedmont, 89 kilometers (55 miles) south of Turin. It was a stronghold of the Lombard League against the Holy ...
War of the Eight Saints

War of the Eight Saints  

A war between Florence (in alliance with Bernabò Visconti) and the papacy waged between August 1375 and July 1378. The ‘saints’ were the eight Florentine officials who raised money by ...
Ytaille

Ytaille  

In the 14th c. Italy was both an abstract notion and a reality. On the one hand, the country had long been divided, politically into many regional and city-states (such ...
Miklós Toldi

Miklós Toldi  

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Overview Page
(fl. 1320–1390),otherwise known as Nicholas Toldi or Nicolaus de Told, commander of Alba Societas. Miklós Toldi is significantly represented in Hungarian literature as a romantic folk hero, noted for ...
condottieri

condottieri  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(Italian condotta, ‘contract’) The leader of a medieval mercenary band of soldiers. Mercenaries flourished in the climate of economic prosperity and inter-municipal warfare of 14th- and 15th-century ...
Paolo Uccello

Paolo Uccello  

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Overview Page
(b Florence, c.1397; d Florence, 10 Dec. 1475).Florentine painter, one of the most distinctive artists of the early Renaissance. Vasari says he was called Uccello (which means ‘bird’) because ...
letters

letters  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Every period of the Middle Ages practised the epistolary genre on a large scale, its popularity being explained by the flexibility of its forms and the fluidity of the genre. ...
mercenaries

mercenaries  

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Overview Page
N.a professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army.late Middle English (as a noun): from Latin mercenaruis ‘hireling,’ from merces, merced- ‘reward.’
Hawkwood, John

Hawkwood, John (1320–1394)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
728 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the army and state from sure defeat. [ See also Castagnaro, Battle of ; Cesena, Massacre at ; Condottieri ; Poitiers, Battle of (1356) ; and Verme, Jacopo dal .] Bibliography Caferro, William . John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. Fowler , Kenneth . “Sir John Hawkwood and the English Condottieri in Trecento Italy.” Renaissance Studies 12 (1998): 131–148. William...

Condottieri

Condottieri   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(Italian condotto , ‘hired’, ‘led’) A name applied to the leaders of bands of freebooters , mercenaries or military adventurers of the 14th and 15th centuries. Notable among them were Sir John Hawkwood at Florence, Francesco of Carmagnola and Francesco Sforza. Italy was particularly plagued by them. The singular is...

Catherine, St

Catherine, St (1347–80)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
100 words

...) Dominican lay sister, ascetic , and author . From 1370 she became increasingly involved in both religious and political issues in Italy, urging in particular the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. Almost 400 of her letters survive, including at least one to Sir John Hawkwood urging him to take part in the crusade to recapture the Holy Land which she was promoting. She is also the author of the Dialogo della divina provvidenza ( 1377–80 : A Treatise of Divine Providence ). Canonized in 1461 , she was named a Doctor of the church in 1970...

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