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Sicily

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Sicily map of ...

Sicily

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Sicilian Vespers The massacre of the French in Sicily on Easter Monday (30 March) 1282 , which began on the stroke of the vesper bell. It was occasioned by the brutality and tyranny of the rule of Charles of Anjou ( 1227–85 ). Two Sicilies, The See under two...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
245 words

... or (Italian) Sicilia or (literary Latin) Trinacria . . The Mediterranean island of Sicily was from 1282 (the date of the rebellion known as the Sicilian Vespers) to 1410 a kingdom, and, after a two-year interregnum, was from 1412 to 1713 ruled by Spanish viceroys. During the fourteenth century, the kings of Naples repeatedly attempted to conquer Sicily; in the fifteenth century, particularly during the reign of Alfonso V , the avarice flowed in the other direction, in that Sicily was seen by Spanish kings as the key to the acquisition of the...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
164 words

...uprising known as the Sicilian Vespers and the establishment in Sicily of the Spanish House of Aragon in its place; southern Italy remained under Angevin rule until reunited with Sicily in 1442 . In 1816 the two areas were officially merged when the Spanish Bourbon Ferdinand styled himself King of the Two Sicilies. The island was liberated by Garibaldi in 1860 and finally incorporated into the new state of...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
809 words

...Africa and probably the Balkan peninsula in the 7th–8th C. Arab raids on Sicily began in 652 , when the caliph Muʿāwiya sent a flotilla to attack the island. Olympios , the exarch of Ravenna , reportedly came to defend Sicily. The Arabs failed to make any permanent conquest and returned home with some booty and captives. The Byz., in their turn, used Sicily as a base for their attacks on North Africa (e.g., an expedition against Carthage in 697 ). In the 8th C. Muslims attacked Sicily from Africa and from Syria; in the 9th C. a force from Spain joined the...

Sicily

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Sicily ( Sicilia ) , Italy ( Trinacria ) An island and region named after the Sicels/Siculi who were present when Greek colonization began in the 8th century bc . However, it has been suggested that the name may possibly derive from the Greek sik , a word referring to the fast-growing plants and shrubs and therefore indicating an island that is ‘fertile’. Trinacria ‘Three Capes’ recognized the triangular shape of the island. In 965 the island was conquered by Arabs from North Africa, and in 1060 it was overrun by Normans. In 1130 the Kingdom of Sicily,...

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Jeremy Paterson, Hanneke Wilson, and Walter Speller

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,022 words

... (known as Sicilia in Italian), large, often hot, varied, and viticulturally important island off the toe of italy ( see map under italy ). Ancient history In startling contrast to the present day, Sicily was famed throughout classical antiquity for its agricultural produce, not least its wines. The settlement of colonies of Greeks around the island in the 8th century bc was an undoubted spur to the development of viticulture. Flourishing vineyards are testified for the 5th century at the later Greek settlement Akragas (Agrigento). Sicily may have...

Sicily

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Carla Sfameni

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... The first Roman province (from 241 bc ). Under the Tetrarchy Sicily became a part of the Dioecesis Italiae aggregated to Italia Suburbicaria . It was governed by a Corrector and after Constantine I by a Consularis under the Vicarius Urbis Romae ( Notitia Dignitatum [occ.] 19, 6). Syracuse was the provincial capital. In Late Antiquity Sicily enjoyed a period of economic prosperity. The island became the primary supplier of grain to the City of Rome after Constantine I founded Constantinople and diverted the grain of Egypt to...

Sicily

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
833 words

... . The fact of being a large island at the centre of the Mediterranean has meant that since antiquity Sicily has had a history and culture distinct from those of mainland Italy. All the same, the bonds between the two have always been stronger than those between Sicily and other countries to which it has been often forcibly linked. Sicilian is an Italic dialect , and since medieval times most Sicilian writers have written in Italian, Sicilian dialect, or Latin, rather than in the language of one or other of their invaders. Ancient Sicily remained strongly...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,575 words

...colonial d’Italie du sud et de Sicile (Rome, 1996) C. J. Smith and J. Serrati : Sicily from Aeneas to Augustus: New Approaches in Archaeology and History (Edinburgh, 2000) F. Sezgin and others: Coins and Coinage of Sicily (Frankfurt am Main, 2003) L. Cerchiai , L. Jannelli and F. Longo : The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily (Los Angeles, 2004) L. Jannelli and others: The Greeks in Sicily (Venice, 2004) G. Messineo and E. Borgia : Ancient Sicily: Monuments Past & Present (Rome, 2005) Urbanistica e architettura nella Sicilia greca ...

Sicily

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Carla M. Antonaccio

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,986 words

..., 1984. Descœudres, Jean-Paul , ed. Greek Colonists and Native Populations , 1990. Finley, Moses . Ancient Sicily , 2d ed., 1979. Guido, Margaret . Sicily: An Archaeological Guide , 1967. Holloway, Ross . The Archaeology of Ancient Sicily , 1991. Leighton, Robert . Sicily before History , 1999. Procelli, Rosa Maria Albanese . Sicani, Siculi, Elimi , 2003. Sjöqvist, Erik . Sicily and the Greeks , 1973. Wilson, Roger . Sicily under the Roman Empire , 1990. Carla M....

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Arnaldo Momigliano, Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead, and Roger J. A. Wilson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,064 words

... 1. Prehistory Ancient writers distinguished three indigenous peoples—Sicani in central, Sicels in eastern, and Elymi in western Sicily. Thucydides ( 2 ) (6. 2) attributes an Iberian origin to the Sicans, an Italic to the Sicels, and a Trojan to the Elymi. Archaeologically there is no differentiation of culture between east and west corresponding to the Sicel–Sican distinction, but the Italian origin of immigrants to Sicily in the late bronze age is confirmed by evidence from the Aeolian islands ( see aeoliae insulae ) and north-eastern Sicily,...

Sicily

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,228 words
Illustration(s):
3

... [ This entry includes two subentries, on the history and on the archaeology of ancient Sicily .] The History of Ancient Sicily The geography of Sicily, its position in the center of the Mediterranean, its upland and mountainous interior, and its narrow coastal plains, has played a decisive role in the history and cultural development of Sicily. Throughout, Sicily has been a place where cultures have come into contact leading to both cultural hybridity and conflict. Finds of distinctive artifacts indicate that the Bronze Age peoples of Sicily were in...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
249 words

... Largest and most populous island in the Mediterranean Sea, off the sw tip of the Italian peninsula, comprising (with nearby islands) an autonomous region of Italy. The capital is Palermo ; other major cities include Messina . The narrow Strait of Messina separates Sicily from the rest of Italy. Mostly mountainous, Mount Etna , at 3323m (10,902ft), is the highest volcano in Europe. There are fertile valleys in the central plateau, and agriculture is the economic mainstay. Situated between Europe and Africa, from the 5th to 3rd century bc it was a...

Sicily

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
316 words

...as from the surviving ruins. The main city was Syracuse , and in the fourth century it came to control all Sicily except for the Carthaginian territories in the far west. After Rome's victory over Carthage in the First Punic War ( 264–241 bc ) almost the whole island came under Roman rule, which was often harsh and corrupt ( see Verres ). After the Romans captured Syracuse in 211 ( see Marcellus (1)) Sicily became a Roman province. Sicily produced many Greeks famous in literary history, among them the poet Stesichorus, the sophist Gorgias, the...

Sicily

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Arnaldo Momigliano, Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead, and Roger J. A. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,490 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( see Map 3, Bd ) 1. Prehistory Ancient writers distinguished three indigenous peoples—Sicani in central, Sicels in eastern, and Elymi in western Sicily. Thucydides (6. 2) attributes an Iberian origin to the Sicans, an Italic to the Sicels, and a Trojan to the Elymi. Archaeologically there is no differentiation of culture between east and west corresponding to the Sicel–Sican distinction, but the Italian origin of immigrants to Sicily in the late bronze age is confirmed by evidence from the Aeolian islands and north-eastern Sicily, showing phases of...

Sicily

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,525 words

...Italy , D. Clementi (ed.), T. Kolzer (ed.), Aalen, 1992. S. R. Epstein , An Island for Itself: economic development and social change in late medieval Sicily , Cambridge, 1992. D. Matthew , The Norman Kingdom of Sicily , Cambridge, 1992. H. Takayama , The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily , Leiden, 1993. C. R. Backman , The Decline and Fall of Medieval Sicily , Cambridge, 1995. Henri...

Sicily

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Ivana Piccitto

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,261 words

...production and aging technologies. See industrial and traditional equipment . About 6 million people live in Sicily, and the production of milk and cheese is able to satisfy less than 20–25 percent of the regional consumption. As a consequence Sicily is forced to import about 80 percent of its milk and cheese to satisfy the requirements of Sicilian consumers. Despite the low level of self-supply, the animal production sector in Sicily is still very important, mainly due to the presence of more than fifteen thousand farmers (even if in the last thirty...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,112 words

... 1. Prehistory Ancient writers distinguished three indigenous peoples—Sicans in central, Sicels in eastern, and Elymians in western Sicily. Thucydides (2) attributes an Iberian origin to the Sicans, an Italic to the Sicels, and a Trojan to the Elymians. Archaeologically there is no differentiation of culture matching the Sicel–Sican distinction. 2. The Greek Settlement Despite Thucydides' account, the Phoenicians did not apparently settle in Sicily before the Greeks, and their colonization was limited to Motya, Panormus, and Soloeis. The Elymians, whose...

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Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
620 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Apart from the rock tombs set in the cliffs at Pantàlica, there are few remaining buildings of the original inhabitants, the Sicels, and the architectural history of Sicily begins with the arrival of the Greeks in the 6th century bc . Sicily was the most prosperous of the Greek colonies. There are substantial remains of temples from the cities of Agrigento and Selinunte (destroyed in 406 and 409 bc respectively). All the temples are of the Doric order , but compared to the ultimate in Doric refinement, the Parthenon, Athens ( 447–438 bc ), they...

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