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Shia

Subject: Religion

One of the two main branches of Islam, followed especially in Iran, that rejects the first three Sunni caliphs and regards Ali, the fourth caliph, as Muhammad's first true successor. ...

Shia

Shia   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
75 words

... ( Shiah, Shiites ) Referring to the ‘party’, or supporters, of *Ali and his bid for the caliphate in the fractious political climate in *Mecca and *Medina following *Muhammad ’s death in 632 . Shia became a popular, non-pejorative term for those Muslims who rejected the first three *caliphs ( *Abu Bakr , Umar, Uthman) and accepted the divine, pre-eternal nature of Ali and his descendants. Colin Paul Mitchell H. Halm , Shia Islam: From Religion to Revolution ...

Shia

Shia   Reference library

Christopher Anzalone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,205 words

... . The Shia coalesced as a distinct movement in the centuries following the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 and in opposition to the majority of the Muslim community, the Sunnis, over the nature of his succession. Unlike the Sunnis, the Shia believed that political and religious authority should be handed down through a predetermined line of infallible leaders (imams) through the bloodline of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin ῾Ali (῾Ali ibn Abi Talib) and his wife, Fatima, the Prophet's daughter. Internal divisions within the Shia community over the...

Shīʿa

Shīʿa   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
303 words

... (Arab., ‘party’). Those Muslims who believe that ʿAlī was the legitimate successor ( khalīfa ) to Muḥammad and that ʿAlī, al-Ḥasan , and al-Ḥusain were cheated of their right to succeed and fell (as martyrs ) victims to tyranny. Close to the Sunni majority in most respects, their most important differences are: the Shīʿa community's suffering is consecrated by the suffering (regarded as martyrdom) of the founding Imāms ; the office of Imām is bestowed by God on a chosen person from Muḥammad's family; these Imāms are a spiritually perfect élite...

Shia

Shia   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
14 words

... US frequency (2010): 277 Chinese: variant Romanization of the surname 夏 ‎, see Xia...

Shi’a

Shi’a   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Arabic Šī‘a , ‘sect of Ali’) One of the two major branches of Islam (the other being the sunnis ). It rejects the first three caliphs and derives its authority from the fourth, Ali, mohammed ’s cousin and son-in-law. It is followed mainly in Iran, southern Iraq and parts of western Afghanistan. Shi’ite A Shi’a muslim...

Shi‘a

Shi‘a   Reference library

Ryan Lynch

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...early Islamic history were proclaimed as such, many of the Shi‘a subscribe to the belief that the Mahdi has appeared and since entered occultation ( ghayba )—although sects disagree over his identity before becoming hidden. The earliest point of division between the Sunnis and the Shi‘a came over succession following Muhammad’s death: the Shi‘a believe Muhammad designated ‘Ali as his heir and successor; the Sunnis recognized no such designation, favouring instead acclamation of Abu Bakr . The Shi‘a took diverse approaches to power and in matters of...

Southeast Asia, Shia in

Southeast Asia, Shia in   Reference library

Christoph Marcinkowski

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,496 words

... Southeast Asia, Shia in Introduction. The vast majority of the Muslims in Southeast Asia today are Sunnis, most of them adhering to the Shāfiʿī legal school. The spread of Islam in the region occurred predominantly by way of the southern and western Indian trade emporia, that is to say, by sea. Muslims had certainly visited Southeast Asia from the seventh century...

Shia

Shia   Quick reference

New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
52 words

... • Achaea , aliyah, Almería, Apia, Bahía, Caesarea, Cassiopeia, Chaldea, Cytherea, Euboea, foreseer, freer, galleria, gynaecea, Iphigenia, Kampuchea, kea, keyer, Latakia, Leah, Lucia, Nicaea, Nicosia, onomatopoeia, Oriya, osteria, Pangaea, Pantelleria, pharmacopoeia, pizzeria, ria, rupiah, sangría, seer, sharia, Shia, skier, spiraea ( US spirea), Tanzania, taqueria, Tarpeia, Thea, trachea, trattoria, urea • ...

Shia

Shia   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... one of the two main branches of Islam, followed especially in Iran, that rejects the first three Sunni caliphs and regards Ali, the fourth caliph, as Muhammad 's first true successor. Adherents are known as Shiites . The name comes from Arabic šī῾a ‘party of...

Shia

Shia noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
105 words
Shia

Shia noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
122 words
Shia

Shia   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
68 words
World Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna-Ashari Muslim Communities

World Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna-Ashari Muslim Communities   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
122 words

...World Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna-Ashari Muslim Communities Established as a nonprofit organization in 1976 in London to serve the Khoja Shii communities around the world. Operating under a constitution, it is run by elected officeholders and the executive council. It derives its policies from a conference held every three years. The secretariat is at the Islamic Centre in Stanmore, England. With twenty-four member communities, four regional federations in Africa, Europe, North America, and India, and a total memberhsip of over a hundred thousand, it is...

Sunnī and Shia Perspectives on Assisted Reproductive
            Technologies

Sunnī and Shia Perspectives on Assisted Reproductive Technologies   Reference library

Marcia C. Inhorn and Soraya Tremayne

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,348 words

... Shia Islam and ARTs These Sunnī Islamic positions on ART have held powerful sway since the 1980s, meaning that third-party reproductive assistance (including surrogacy) is not practiced in most Muslim-majority countries. However, since the late 1980s Shia Muslim jurists have diverged in their thinking on this subject ( Tremayne and Akhondi, 2016 ). Because Shia jurisprudence places a high priority ...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a

Religious Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a   Reference library

Halil Ibrahim Yenigun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,420 words

...Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a Introduction Several formations and articulations between religion and politics pose points of parallels and contrasts across different religions. As for Islam, strong convictions on its particularities and its almost unidirectional determinative power over the politics of Muslim-majority societies have engendered certain truisms. To begin with, “din,” the common translation of religion in Arabic, is not a private affair limited to spiritual matters as in other religions but encompasses all spheres of life...

Organization of North American Shia Ithna-Ashari Muslim Communities (NASIMCO)

Organization of North American Shia Ithna-Ashari Muslim Communities (NASIMCO)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
70 words

...Organization of North American Shia Ithna-Ashari Muslim Communities (NASIMCO) Established in 1986 and comprises primarily the Twelver Khoja Muslim communities in Canada and the United States. The majority of the membership is immigrants who arrived from East Africa since the 1960s. The total membership ( 2002 ) includes eleven communities with some five thousand members. The mission statement includes promotion of the religious, educational, social, and economic uplift of the Shii...

Shia(h)

Shia(h) n.   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford German Dictionary: English German (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
7 words
Shia(h)

Shia(h)   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: English-French (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
10 words
Shi'a

Shi'a   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
198 words
Shi'a

Shi'a   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
200 words

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