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Scotland

The northern part of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom. Sparsely populated until Celtic peoples arrived from the Continent during the Bronze and Early Iron Age, the inhabitants of ...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
128 words

... 1881: 853; central Scotland: especially Kinross and Clackmannans. English: (i) relationship name from the Middle English personal name Scotland , Scolland . Found in Normandy as well as England, it is not of Continental Germanic origin and evidently denoted a Scot or someone with an association with Scotland. (ii) ethnic name from Middle English Scotlond ‘Scotland’, for someone from Scotland. Compare England . (iii) locative name from Scotlandwell in Portmoak (Kinross), whose name is of transparent origin but uncertain significance. (iv) locative...

Scotland

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...on 1 January 1651 . Scotland Yard As commonly used the name denotes the Criminal Investigation Department of the Metropolitan Police. The name arose from the fact that Great Scotland Yard, Whitehall, was the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police from c. 1842 to 1890 and thereafter New Scotland Yard, Parliament Street, until 1967 when ‘Scotland Yard’ was transferred to Broadway, Westminster. The name of the original Scotland Yard comes from the fact that it was the residence of the kings of Scotland when they came to London. Scotland Yard, or its...

Scotland

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The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... was in Chaucer's day an independent kingdom with uneasy political relations with England, which had its own cultural and literary traditions. Chaucer mentions Scotland and the Scots only in The Man of Law's Tale (II.580, 718), as the enemies of King Alla...

Scotland

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
18 words

... . Ceramics see Delftfield Pottery ; Glasgow ; Portobello ; Wemyss Ware . Metalwork see Carron Iron co . Textiles see Edinburgh weavers...

Scotland

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
566 words

...Nevis . In pre‐history, Scotland was inhabited by the Picts . In ad 843 , Kenneth I united the lands of the Picts and the Scots . In 1174 Scotland became a fiefdom of England. Richard I granted Scottish freedom in 1189 , but the enmity between England and Scotland continued. Edward I forced the Scots to submit, only for William Wallace to lead a Scottish revolt. Robert I (the Bruce) recaptured much Scottish land and defeated the English at the Battle of Bannockburn ( 1314 ); this led to England's recognition of Scottish independence in 1328 ....

Scotland

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A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the Norse invasions and the Reformation, much of Scottish Gaelic tradition remained linked to Ireland. Many Scottish Gaelic stories are parallels of Irish stories and have Irish settings. Characters in Irish stories, such as Deirdre or Cúchulainn , travel to Scotland and appear familiar with its geography, although often Scotland is seen as a place of magic and adventure, like other foreign countries. From medieval through to early modern times, commerce and social intercourse continued between Gaelic Scotland and Ireland: large numbers of Highland...

Scotland

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
535 words

...of a measure of devolution. This included a Scottish Parliament with 129 MPs elected by proportional representation in elections that took place in May 1999 ; power was transferred to the new body in July. The Scottish Parliament initially had powers to make laws on most domestic matters and to vary the basic rate of income tax, with more powers being transferred over the next decade. The first two elections to the Scottish Parliament resulted in Labour–Liberal Democrat coalition administrations, but the Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond formed...

Scotland

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Alastair Gilmour

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a large stake in the Scottish trade, following smaller companies such as Vaux of Sunderland in the North of England and Allsopp of Burton-on-Trent which had already acquired a significant brewery-owning foothold in Scotland. Scotland was not exempt from the lager phenomenon that spiralled out of the 1960s with the demand for “younger” and “easier-to-drink beers” typified by dubiously Irish Harp Lager and Skol, a decidedly confused Scottish-Scandinavian synthesis. The independent spirit has never been conquered, however, and Scottish brewers have always been...

Scotland

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
589 words

... . At the outset of the fifteenth century, Scotland was in civil war, as the rule of Robert III was disputed. His son James was captured and passed to King Henry IV of England; he remained in English hands for eighteen years. On his return to Scotland as James I in 1424 , he attempted to establish there the centralized monarchical rule which he had witnessed in England, striking against enemies amongst the Scottish lords. He was murdered in 1437 as part of a failed coup by opponents of this newly asserted royal power. His son James II ...

Scotland

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Andrew Murphy

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... , in Shakespeare’s day, was an independent country of perhaps 500,000 inhabitants. Like Ireland , it was considered by many English commentators to be less civilized than England. Some Scottish intellectuals, such as George Buchanan , were, however, highly regarded throughout Europe and Scottish affairs were crucial on many occasions during Elizabeth ’s reign, most notably when the exiled Mary Stuart was executed in England ( 1587 ). There has been speculation that Shakespeare may have visited Scotland in the company of the comedian Lawrence...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,219 words

...attached to the Royal Scottish Academy of Music, chairman of the Scottish Committee of the Arts Council of Great Britain and of the Scottish Community Drama Association, and Drama Adviser to the Edinburgh Festival, and as such his influence on the development of Scottish drama was very considerable. His plays made less impact, for the vast majority were first performed outside Scotland and their content and style remain unique to Bridie, the next generation of playwrights preferring to follow other trends. None the less, his ‘Scottish’ plays, which include ...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,126 words

...rivalries of the Scottish bishops thereafter. In 1176 Pope Alexander III , anxious that the Scottish church should not be subjected to the abuses of King Henry II of England, confirmed the freedom of the Scottish church from subjection to England . In 1192 Pope Celestine III constituted the Scottish church a “special daughter” of the Holy See, without a metropolitan , and subsequently arrangements were made to allow the church to hold regular provincial councils presided over by a “Conservator of the Privileges of the Scottish Church”, one of the...

Scotland

Scotland (Australia, Canada, UK, USA)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...The British Kingdom of Strathclyde was brought into the fold in 1034 , but attempts to expand into northern England failed. In 1603 England and Scotland were joined in a personal union, although separate kingdoms were maintained, when James VI of Scotland became James I of England. In 1707 the Act of Union between the two kingdoms created, together with Wales, the Kingdom of Great Britain . The Scottish Parliament was dissolved and was not re-established until 1999 in an act of devolution from the British...

Scotland

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,332 words

...Scotland Linked with England since the 1707 Act of Union, Scotland maintained a separate established church ( Church of Scotland ), its own legal system, and a distinctive education system which placed a high emphasis on university education and the teaching of science. It received its own Cabinet minister, Secretary for Scotland (Secretary of State from 1926 ) in 1885 . In the twentieth century, demands for political independence emerged in the late 1920s, and led to the formation of the Scottish National Party ( SNP ) in 1934 . However, for much of...

Scotland

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,220 words

...eastern Scotland, and by c .1000 Scots‐Gaelic was prevalent over much of Scotland, although it did not reach Orkney and Shetland. Irish missionaries led by Colum Cille brought Christianity to much of Scotland and also played a key role in the Christianization of Northumbria, an area which was long regarded as being culturally and politically tied to ‘the kingdom of the Scots’. Thus Ireland left a lasting mark on the history of early Christian Scotland. Fergus Mór ( c . ad 500 ), ruler of Dál Riata, was seen as the founder figure of Scottish dynasties....

Scotland

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Alastair J. Durie

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,617 words

...Payne, Peter L. Growth and Contraction: Scottish Industry, 1860–1990 . Dundee, Scotland, 1992. A magisterial account of the problems of Scottish industry in the twentieth century. Saville, Richard . Bank of Scotland: A History, 1695–1995 . Edinburgh, 1996. A comprehensive account of an institution that has been at the heart of the Scottish financial community for three centuries. Smout, T. Christopher . A History of the Scottish People, 1560–1830 . London, 1969. Both informative and a pleasure to read. Particularly strong on the social dimensions to...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

Richard J. Finlay

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was held on the creation of a Scottish parliament, which received popular endorsement. In 1999 the Scottish parliament reconvened after a gap of 292 years. [ See also Culloden, Battle of ; Devolution in the United Kingdom ; Gaelic Language ; Highland Clearances ; Jacobites ; Potato Famine, Irish and Scottish ; Scottish Enlightenment ; and United Kingdom . ] Bibliography Campbell, R. H. Scotland since 1707: The Rise of an Industrial Society . 2d ed. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1985. Devine, T. M. The Scottish Nation, 1700–2000 . London: Allen...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

Alan Riach

The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
854 words

...nationalism in ‘The Flag of Scotland’ and ‘The Bagpipes’: ‘When Scotland's pipe sounds in my ears, / My heart with stirring thoughts it cheers.’ Ferguson was also the author of a popular historical novel modelled on Scott: The King's Friend: A Tale of the Scottish Wars of Independence ( 1905 ). Moral piety typifies the demotic homilies of Hugh Smith, ‘Bard of Inangahua’ ( 1851–1944 ). By the 1930s, his Poems by an Ayrshire Scot had sold 2000 copies. ‘Hughie’ was popular culture among those for whom Scotland was a land of ‘romance, legend and...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

Derek Watson and Kenneth Chalmers

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
811 words

...have passed Scotland by, the country's traditional music was greatly in vogue in London by 1700 . 18th-century Edinburgh became a centre of musical activity, with an influx of foreign musicians and the emergence of native Scottish composers such as Thomas Erskine ; collections of national songs continued to appear, the most significant being The Scots Musical Museum ( 1787–1803 ), which saw the involvement of Robert Burns . Scottish music history was at its lowest ebb in the 19th century until, in the final decade, what is now the Royal Scottish Academy of...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,758 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: The Chambered Tombs of Scotland , 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1963–72) R. Fawcett : Scottish Medieval Churches (Edinburgh, 1985) C. Tabraham : Scottish Castles and Fortifications (Edinburgh, 1986) C. Tabraham : Scotland’s Castles (London, 1997) P. Yeoman : Pilgrimage in Medieval Scotland (London, 1999) R. D. Oram : ‘Prelatical Builders: Lordly Symbolism in Episcopal and Monastic Residences in Scotland c . 1124– c . 1500’, Actes du colloque international de Gwatt, Suisse, 2–10 septembre 2000 , pp. 183–93 R. Fawcett : Scottish Medieval Churches:...

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