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Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...that approximately four in ten American scientists (39.3 percent) continued to embrace a prayer-answering God, whereas 38 percent believed in an afterlife. A follow-up survey of the country’s most distinguished scientists (all fellows of the elite National Academy of Sciences) revealed that only 7.0 percent believed in a personal God and 7.9 percent in personal immortality ( Larson and Witham, 1997 , 1998 ; see also Larson and Witham, 1999 ). One of the most interesting—and perhaps significant—recent developments has been the embrace of an amorphous...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...played a role. Nonetheless, the absolute differences between the United States and the rest of the world have not been large. In terms of other mortality differentials, women have tended to live longer than men. In 1850 , women had an e(0) that was 6 percent higher than that of men, a gap that had narrowed to only about 2 percent by 1900 . But women outlived men by almost 7 percent, or five years, by 2006 . Differences between rural and urban people were historically also large. In the nineteenth century, cities were distinctly less healthy places to live....

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Association ; Anatomy and Human Dissection ; Biological Sciences ; Blackwell, Elizabeth ; Botany ; Chemistry ; Flexner Report ; Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation ; Gender and Science ; Higher Education and Science ; High Schools, Science Education in ; Hospitals ; Medicare and Medicaid ; Medicine ; National Medical Association ; Pharmacology and Drug Therapy ; Physiology ; Race and Medicine ; Rockefeller Institute, The ; Science ; Societies and Associations, Science ; Surgery ; Welch, William H. ; and Zakrzewska, Marie ] B...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...principle for U.S. postwar economic policy. Manela, Erez . “A Pox on Your Narrative: Writing Disease Control into Cold War History.” Diplomatic History 34, no. 2 (2010): 299–323. Martin-Nielsen, Janet . “‘This War for Men’s Minds’: Birth of a Human Science in Cold War America.” History of the Human Sciences 23, no. 5 (2010): 131–155. A fine analysis of linguistics as a Cold War science. National Resources Defense Council . National Resources Defense Council Environmental Issues; Nuclear Energy, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Main Page; All Nuclear...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...; Genetics and Genetic Engineering ; Geological Surveys ; Higher Education and Science ; Hospitals ; Human Genome Project ; Law and Science ; Machinery and Manufacturing ; Manhattan Project ; Medicine ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Mining Technology ; Missiles and Rockets ; Museums of Science and Natural History ; Nanotechnology ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Institutes of Health ; National Laboratories ; National Science Foundation ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Gerard P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO)—a Lockheed C-141A Starlifter cargo plane modified to carry a 36-inch (0.91-meter) reflector peering out of an open cavity near the nose—enabled a wealth of discoveries from 1974 to 1995 about the structure of Pluto’s atmosphere, the nature of the interstellar medium (gas and dust between stars), and the birth of stars. In 2011 , NASA (in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center DLR) began science missions on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a short-bodied commercial Boeing 747SP...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Reese V. Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Focal Press, 2011. New edition with emphasis on digital color photography by director of Light Research and faculty member at SUNY Buffalo. Chapter 2 is an excellent brief overview of the history of color photography “History of Photography in Astronomy.” McCormick Museum, Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia. http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~rjp0i/museum/photography.html . Jenkins, Reese V. Images and Enterprise, Technology and the American Photographic Industry, 1839 to 1925 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press...

Global Warming

Global Warming   Reference library

Kristine C. Harper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Club Books, 1989. An informative, nontechnical book by the late climate scientist explaining the global warming controversy. Singer, S. Fred . Hot Talk, Cold Science: Global Warming’s Unfinished Debate . Oakland, Calif.: Independent Institute, 1997. A contrarian view of global warming by meteorologist Singer, a global warming skeptic. Weart, Spencer R. The Discovery of Global Warming . 2d ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008. Background and current status of the global warming debate; the companion website contains additional,...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... Pollard, Willard L. V. Position Controlling Apparatus . U.S. 2,286,571. Filed 22 April 1938 and issued 16 June 1942. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2286571?printsec=description&dq=Pollard,+2,286,571&ei=q8ahT7q_Jqr26AGE0LGFCQ#v=onepage&q=Pollard%2C%202%2C286%2C571&f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from ...

Iron and Steel Production and Products

Iron and Steel Production and Products   Reference library

Jonathan Rees

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Steel Production and Products Iron and steel are closely related substances. Iron is an element. Add carbon to it and it can become the compound known as steel. In the nineteenth century, steel was defined as having between 0.2 and 1.0 percent carbon. Anything with a carbon content of 2 percent or more was considered cast iron. Any pig iron processed down to contain a lower carbon content than steel was considered wrought iron. Without readily available chemical testing, trained iron puddlers made the decision whether the metal had reached the stage from...

Software

Software   Reference library

Thomas Haigh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Computer Science ; Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro ; Engineering ; ENIAC ; Internet and World Wide Web ; Mathematics and Statistics ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; Science ; Technology ; and Von Neumann, John . ] Bibliography Akera, Atsushi . “Voluntarism and the Fruits of Collaboration.” Technology and Culture 42, no. 4 (October 2001): 710–736. Documents the SHARE user group and its operating system development project of the late 1950s. Auletta, Ken . World War 3.0:...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...machinery also advanced through physical science. Telegraphs. Samuel Morse invented the dominant U.S. telegraph. His science studies at Yale and his interaction with northeastern scientists proved decisive in forming his telegraph’s electromagnets, circuitry, and sending and receiving mechanisms. He relied on machinists to perfect and produce his equipment. Aided by government funding, he succeeded in 1844 , and telegraph messages transmitted by Western Union, the near-monopoly intercity provider, rose to 9.2 million in 1870 and 75.1 million in 1910 ....

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro   Reference library

David Alan Grier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...developed over the three periods that produced mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers. [ See also Automation and Computerization ; Computer Science ; Engineering ; ENIAC ; Internet and World Wide Web ; Mathematics and Statistics ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Software ; Technology ; and Von Neumann, John .] Bibliography Ceruzzi, Paul . A History of Modern Computing , 2d ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003. Cortada, James . The Digital Hand , Vols. 1–3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, 2006, 2008. Kidder, Tracy...

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