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p

p   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of less than 1 in 20 (i.e., p <0.05) is considered unlikely to have occurred by chance in many situations arising in medicine; e.g., results of clinical trials. Confidence intervals usually convey more information about the uncertainty attaching to an estimate than do p values and are therefore a preferable way to express results of a study. 2. When used to refer to the probability of an adverse outcome, as in physical sciences, engineering, and many biomedical sciences, a far smaller probability (e.g., p <0.001 or p <0.0001) is conventionally required....

Gini coefficient

Gini coefficient   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Gini coefficient A measure of the degree of dispersion or inequality in a set of values. It is used in public health, in the social sciences, and in economic analyses (e.g., in health economics , where it is used to calculate variation or income inequality). It was invented by the Italian economist Corrado Gini ( 1884–1965 ). It can be calculated in several ways, e.g., G=1+1/ n −2/ n 2 y× [y 1 +2y 2 +3y 3 + … + n y n , where y 1 … y n are individual incomes in diminishing order of size, y× is the mean income, and n is the number of individuals. A...

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