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mean body temperature

mean body temperature  

An average body temperature, which takes into account temperature variations throughout the body. It is not a mathematical mean, but is a weighted average often estimated using the equation: mean ...
P wave

P wave  

Component of an electrocardiograph that appears as a small positive deflection prior to the QRS complex. At rest, it normally lasts less than 0.12 s and has an amplitude of 0.25 mV or less. It ...
Karvonen method

Karvonen method  

A method of calculating the training heart rate, which is equivalent to a desired percentage VO2max. It involves adding a given percentage of the maximal heart rate reserve (maximal heart ...
wet bulb globe temperature index

wet bulb globe temperature index  

An index developed by the US armed forces and used by athletes as an indicator of the relative severity of environmental temperatures. It is computed using the following equation: WBGT index = ...
Osgood's semantic differential scales

Osgood's semantic differential scales  

Measures of attitude that require that individuals rate the attitude object on a set of semantic scales, which are bipolar adjectives generally seven steps apart. For example, a scale for rating how ...
synaptic delay

synaptic delay  

The time (typically 0.3–0.5 ms) required for a neurotransmitter to be released from a presynaptic membrane, diffuse across the synaptic cleft, and bind to a receptor site on the post-synaptic ...
target heart rate

target heart rate  

The heart rate recommended for a fitness work out. Often a heart rate range is calculated from values of the maximal heart range, with the lower end being 60% of the maximal heart rate (i.e. 0.60 × ...
alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference

alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference  

The difference between the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolus and the mean arterial pressure of oxygen, measured in mmHg or kPa. It indicates the efficiency of gaseous exchange in the lungs. ...
two-third strength hypothesis

two-third strength hypothesis  

A hypothesis based on the suggestion that changes of muscle strength are proportional to the muscle's diameter and thus to the square of body height (BH)2 and that changes of body mass (BM) are ...
nerve axon conduction velocity

nerve axon conduction velocity  

The velocity at which a nerve impulse is propagated along a neurone. It is affected by the diameter of the neurone, temperature, and the presence or absence of a myelin sheath. Myelinated fibres have ...
ballistic response

ballistic response  

A task accomplished by a movement so quick that, once initiated, it cannot be voluntarily changed except for minor adjustments. The fast movement usually takes less than 0.2 s. The ballistic response ...
coefficient of lift

coefficient of lift  

A unitless number which indicates a body's ability to generate lift as it moves through a fluid. The magnitude of the coefficient depends on the shape of the body and its angle of attack. For ...
making weight

making weight  

Acquiring a particular body weight in order to compete in a specific weight category. To make weight in sports such as horse racing, boxing, and wrestling, competitors often try to lose weight very ...
TRIMP method

TRIMP method  

A method for quantifying aerobic training load. TRIMP is an abbreviation of TRaining IMPulse. It was originally defined as the product of training volume, measured in minutes, and training intensity, ...
aerobic training threshold

aerobic training threshold  

The minimum intensity of aerobic training below which there is no observable training effect. The aerobic training threshold is usually expressed as a percentage of a person's maximum oxygen uptake ...
lactate threshold

lactate threshold  

The point during exercise of increasing intensity at which blood lactate begins to accumulate significantly above resting levels. There are several different methods of estimating the threshold. They ...
infrared imagery

infrared imagery  

The imagery produced as a result of sensing electromagnetic radiations emitted or reflected from a given target surface in the infrared position of the electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 0.72 to ...
coefficient of restitution

coefficient of restitution  

A parameter associated with the behaviour of two bodies during a collision. Suppose that two billiard balls are travelling in the same straight line and have velocities u 1 and u 2 before the ...
glycaemic index

glycaemic index  

(GI)A measure of the rate at which glucose is absorbed through the intestine and its subsequent level in the blood. Carbohydrates are measured against pure glucose on a scale of 0 to 100, where pure ...
Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition   Reference library

Jennifer L. Etnier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...children: An ERP study . Experimental Brain Research , 225 (2), 187–196. Colcombe, S. , & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Science , 14 (2), 125–130. Colcombe, S. J. , Erickson, K. I. , Raz, N. , Webb, A. G. , Cohen, N. J. , McAuley, E. , et al. (2003). Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. Journals of Gerontology B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences , 58 (2), 176–180. Colcombe, S. J. , Erickson, K. I. , Scalf, P. E. , Kim...

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