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Property, Intellectual

Property, Intellectual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
3,310 words

...and other artistic works by translating the works into a series of 0s or 1s which can be read by a computer. The digital copies can then be reproduced without deterioration in copy quality and widely distributed over the Internet or through CD-ROM. The ease of digital reproduction and transmission has also eased the ability to pirate, or illegally copy and distribute, copyrighted works. The problems have been exacerbated by the emergence of peer to peer (“P2P”) filing sharing networks. P2P networks allow users to index and “swap” files over the Internet...

Reynolds v. Sims

Reynolds v. Sims   Reference library

Gordon E. Baker

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,898 words

...apportionment plans, usually in quantifiable ways. The most commonly accepted index was a population deviance range of plus‐15 to minus‐15 percent of the average population per district, a rule perhaps borrowed from a recommendation made by a committee of the American Political Science Association in 1951 , long before judicial entry into apportionment disputes. Furthermore, acceptable ranges of population variances kept shrinking as courts handling apportionment disputes found it difficult to reject plaintiffs' alternative plans that were “more equal” in...

Reynolds v. Sims

Reynolds v. Sims   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,031 words

...apportionment plans, usually in quantifiable ways. The most commonly accepted index was a population deviance range of plus-15 to minus-15 percent of the average population per district, a rule perhaps borrowed from a recommendation made by a committee of the American Political Science Association in 1951 , long before judicial entry into apportionment disputes. Furthermore, acceptable ranges of population variances kept shrinking as courts handling apportionment disputes found it difficult to reject plaintiffs’ alternative plans that were “more equal” in...

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education   Reference library

Dennis J. Hutchinson

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,108 words

...v. Board of Education , 347 U.S. 483 ( 1954 ), argued 9 Dec. 1952 , reargued 8 Dec. 1953 , decided 17 May 1954 by vote of 9 to 0; Warren for the Court ( Brown I ); 349 U.S. 294 ( 1955 ), reargued, on the question of relief, 11– 14 April 1954 , decided 31 May 1955 by vote of 9 to 0; Warren for the Court ( Brown II ). With a brisk, nontechnical and unexpectedly unanimous opinion running only ten pages, Chief Justice Earl Warren ignited a legal and social revolution in race relations and constitutionalism. “ Brown was the beginning,” Alexander M. ...

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,091 words

...v. Board of Education , 347 U.S. 483 ( 1954 ), argued 9 Dec. 1952 , reargued 8 Dec. 1953 , decided 17 May 1954 by vote of 9 to 0; Warren for the Court ( Brown I ); 349 U.S. 294 ( 1955 ), reargued, on the question of relief, 11–14 April 1954 , decided 31 May 1955 by vote of 9 to 0; Warren for the Court ( Brown II ). With a brisk, nontechnical and unexpectedly unanimous opinion running only ten pages, Chief Justice Earl Warren ignited a legal and social revolution in race relations and constitutionalism. “ Brown was the beginning,” Alexander M....

gas chromatography

gas chromatography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
482 words

...5-10 millimetres and lengths of between 2 and 4 metres, wound into a coil. The heated gas flowed over the beads, allowing contact between sample molecules in the gaseous mobile phase and the stationary phase. Called ‘packed column chromatographs’, these instruments were widely used for drug, toxicology, and arson analysis. In the 1980s, packed column chromatography began to give way to capillary column GC, in which the liquid phase is coated onto the inner walls of thin capillary tube usually on the order of 0.32mm in diameter and anywhere from 15 to 100...

Jurimetrics

Jurimetrics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,108 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of each Justice within the psychological space they all inhabit. Each factor is represented as an axis in a two-dimensional graph or a spherical or hyperspherical space of three or more dimensions. The Justices' positions along each axis are represented by ‘loadings’ between +1.0 and -1.0; their spatial positions are determined by plotting these loadings against each other as in a Cartesian graph. Plotting two such axes together defines a circular plane; plotting three of them together defines a spherical three-dimensional space, which represents the outer limit...

Laws of Ur-Namma

Laws of Ur-Namma   Reference library

Claus Wilcke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,882 words

...tenants not cultivating leased fields or causing field damage by water must compensate the owner (§§39’–41’). §42’ decrees a two-shekel fee per bùr (ca. 62,400 m 2 or 15.91 acres) for a watered field added to the rent of two-thirds of the yield. §43’ puts yearly (?) wages for cultivating a field at one (?) shekel. A lacuna follows. §a1 and b0 are incomplete. §b1 then norms rental fees for oxen. §§b2–3 decree an unmarried daughter’s heirship in absence of male offspring, regulate the inheritance of an additional daughter, and let the (father’s) work gang share...

Contemporary Jewish Religious Movements

Contemporary Jewish Religious Movements   Reference library

Elliot N. Dorff, Michael J. Broyde, Mark Goldfeder, and Mark Washofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,273 words

...Law to address. Toward the Future. The Conservative/Masorti movement thus takes Jewish Law seriously. It strives to make the law part of Jews’ lives and to apply it to modern conditions while taking into account Jewish theology, Jewish moral convictions, developments in modern science, and sociological, economic, and political realities. Balancing all those factors is clearly harder to do than simply deriving rulings from prior texts, for it requires both knowledge of all these other matters and, crucially, a keen, honed skill of judgment. Nevertheless, as ...

Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
13,620 words
Illustration(s):
2

...example, the arrangement for reciprocal copyright protection of 1832 . Deliberations in the federal legislature eventually led to the passing of occasional legal protections for authors in the individual states—for example, the Law for the Protection of Ownership in Works of Science and Art against Copyright Infringement in Prussia in 1837 . A similar picture appears in the field of inventions. Although the German customs union arrived at an agreement for patent protection in 1842 , a few individual states had previously put the traditional system of...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
18,029 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Sheathing the Sword of Justice in Japan: An Essay on Law without Sanctions. ” Journal of Japanese Studies 8 (1982): 265–281. Hiramatsu, Y. “ Tokugawa Law. ” Law in Japan 14 (1981): 1–48. Kades, C. “ The American Role in Revising Japan's Imperial Constitution. ” Political Science Quarterly 104 (1989): 215–247. Rabinowitz, R. W. “ The Historical Development of the Japanese Bar. ” Harvard Law Review 70 (1956): 61–81. Rabinowitz, R. W. “ Reluctant Litigant Revisited: Rationality and Disputes in Japan. ” Journal of Japanese Studies 14 (1988): 111–123....

Quantitative Studies

Quantitative Studies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,100 words

...Mitchell, Neil J. , and James M. McCormick . “ Is U.S. Aid Really Linked to Human Rights in Latin America? ” American Journal of Political Science 32, no. 2 (1988): 476–498. Argues that the conclusions reached by Cingranelli and Pasquarello in their 1985 article cited above were wrong. Neumayer, Eric . “ Do Human Rights Matter in Bilateral Aid Allocation? A Quantitative Analysis of 21 Countries. ” Social Science Quarterly 84, no. 3 (2003): 650–666. A global, comparative analysis of the role government respect for civil/political rights and physical...

Public Policy

Public Policy   Reference library

Adela de la Torre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,728 words

...Bachelor’s Degree Mexican 17.0 29.7 7.3 Puerto Rican 13.4 32.2 12.3 Cuban 7.4 32.2 18.0 Central American 16.5 28.6 7.8 South American 6.8 28.8 21.6 Other Hispanic 11.5 28.7 15.3 White 5.3 30.9 27.5 Source: United States Census 2011 . The Hispanic Population in the United States 2011 . http://www.census.gov/population/hispanic/data/2011.html . Other significant structural problems in public schools that placed Latino students at a disadvantage included (1) inadequate preparation of and lower salary levels for science and math instructors and programs...

CLEAN WATER ACT

CLEAN WATER ACT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...Fawcett Press, 1962. Copeland, Claudia. “Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law.” CRS Report for Congress , 2002. Copeland, Claudia. Clean Water Act: Current Issues and Guide to Books . New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2003. Department of Environmental Quality. “National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.” http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3682_3713_10197--,00.html (accessed 22 November 2005). Freeman, A. Myrick, III. “Environmental Policy since Earth Day I: What Have We Gained?” Journal of Environmental Perspectives , 16, no. 1...

Botswana and Lesotho

Botswana and Lesotho   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,886 words

...of Basotho, many of them women. It is important to note that the implementation of the LHWP may have contributed to the increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence in the highlands. Whereas the HIV prevalence rate in the highlands was about 0.5 percent in 1988 , it was estimated to be 23.9 percent in 2007 , according to the Human Sciences Research Council. It is possible that the substantial increase in HIV prevalence resulted, in part, from the huge influx of construction workers from outside the highlands, some of whom had sexual contact with local people. Lesotho...

Sexual Abuse

Sexual Abuse   Reference library

Yvette G. Flores

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,012 words

...Chicana/Latina Studies 1, no. 2 (1997): 48–70. Fontes, L. A. “Sin Vergüenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families.” Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 16, no. 1 (2007): 61–83. Garbarino, James . “The Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect.” Issue Brief 1, no. 1: 1–4. Romero, Gloria J. , Gail E. Wyatt , Tamra Burns Loeb , Jennifer Vargas Carmona , and Beatriz M. Solis . “The Prevalence and Circumstances of Child Sexual Abuse among Latina Women,” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 21, no. 3 (August 1999):...

Brazilians

Brazilians   Reference library

Ana Christina Braga Martes and Sarah Faleiros

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,714 words

...by Table 2 is that the organizations aimed at political articulation and representation, as well as those dedicated to upholding rights, add up to a mere 5 percent of all organizations surveyed. These organizations are found, by decreasing order, in Florida (67), California (18), New York (18), Massachusetts (17), Illinois (11), Georgia (11), Wisconsin (6), Connecticut (6), Virginia (4), Washington, D.C. (3), Indiana (3), Michigan (3), Minnesota (3), New Jersey (3), Pennsylvania (3), Texas (3), Utah (2), Colorado (2), Nevada (2), Alabama (1),...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...Humanity ; Forensic Science ; Genocide ; Holocaust ; Israel ; Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials ; Universal Declaration of Human Rights ; and Elie Wiesel .] Bibliography Finkelstein, Norman G. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History . Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Finkelstein, Norman G. The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering . 2d ed. New York: Verso, 2003. http://portal.unesco.org/en/file_download.php/4c2af3045fc23f0d1a48d720d7f33600074+2...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
13,083 words

...4.39 −12.81 8.00 Shandong 1958 54.22 1960 51.88 2.34 −4.32 7.50 Hunan 1959 36.92 1961 35.08 1.84 −4.98   Henan 1957 49.79 1961 48.03 1.76 −3.53 7.80 Guizhou 1959 17.44 1961 16.24 1.20 −6.88   Gansu 1959 12.93 1961 12.11 0.82 −6.34   Qinghai 1959 2.60 1962 2.05 0.55 −21.15 0.90 Jiangsu 1959 42.90 1961 42.43 0.47 −1.10   Guangxi 1959 22.05 1961 21.59 0.46 −2.09   Liaoning 1960 25.59 1961 25.19 0.40 −1.56   Hubei 1959 31.73 1960 31.52 0.21 −0.66   Yunnan 1958 19.14 1960 18.95 0.19 −0.99   Ningxia 1960 2.13 1962 1.99 0.14 −6.57                   Total Loss        ...

Environmental Policy

Environmental Policy   Reference library

Paul Charles Milazzo, Donald T. Critchlow, Mark J. Rozell, and Donald T. Critchlow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
5,203 words

...York: Fawcett Press, 1962. Copeland, Claudia. “Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law.” CRS Report for Congress , 2002. Copeland, Claudia. Clean Water Act: Current Issues and Guide to Books . New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2003. Department of Environmental Quality. “ National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. ” http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3682_3713_10197--,00.html (accessed 22 November 2005). Freeman, A. Myrick, III. “ Environmental Policy since Earth Day I: What Have We Gained? ” Journal of Environmental Perspectives , 16, no....

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