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Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...genres used in similar situations. Jamieson, Kathleen . Eloquence in an Electronic Age . New York, 1988. Claims that informal conversational structure has replaced formal argument in televised political exchanges. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . 2d ed. Baltimore, 1977. Argues that the linear arrangement of individual literary texts will be replaced by continuous webs of text. Larsen, Richard . “ Toward a Linear Rhetoric of the Essay. ” College Composition and Communication 22 (1971), pp....

algorithm

algorithm   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
674 words

...Consider the following example of an algorithm: The problem is to compute the factorial of a number n . The factorial n! can be defined as a function: N1 = f(n) = 1 *2*3*4* … *n (with n > 0). There are different ways that this problem can be described and solved: (1) description in everyday language: to compute N1 multiply the sequence of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, …, n with each other; (2) a more formal description written in the programming language BASIC:10 INPUT N20 RESULT = 130 IF N< = 1 THEN GOTO 10040 I = 250 RESULT = RESULT*160 I = I + 170 IF I > N...

Phonetics

Phonetics   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... palate to record, display, and store data on articulatory movements inside the mouth. (2) Acoustic phonetics is concerned with the study of speech as heard: that is, its waveform . For the study of vowels and consonants, the waveform is presented as a spectrogram, on which sounds appear as recognizable visual patterns. For the study of intonation , the pitch , or more precisely the fundamental frequency , usually called F0 (‘ef nought’), is extracted and displayed. A speech workstation is a machine, usually based on a computer, that...

error back‐propagation

error back‐propagation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
616 words

...In Parallel Distributed Processing , vol. 1, edited by D. E. Rumelhart , pp. 318–361. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986. Sejnowski T. J. , and C. Rosenberg , NETtalk: A Parallel Network that Learns to Read Aloud . Johns Hopkins University Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Technical Report JHU/EECS‐86/01. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986. Widrow G. , and M. E. Hoff . “ Adaptive Switching Circuits. ” Institute of Radio Engineers, Western Electronic Show and Convention: Convention Record , part 4 (1960): 96–104. — Markus...

number representation

number representation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that 4 is the doubling of 2. We must first memorize these words and figures by establishing a fixed series of words or figures that corresponds to the rising sequence of the numbers designated by them. Fortunately, the part of this procedure that most burdens our memory ends at twelve , as the word thirteen can be analyzed into thir and teen , which remind us of words we encountered in the preceding series: three and ten . With the figures, this occurs even earlier, at 10, which consists of the elementary figures 1 and 0 . By composing numeral...

Frege, Gottlob

Frege, Gottlob (1848–1925)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,504 words

...an object. Functions differ in kind from objects in being unsaturated; their expression leaves a blank space, as in 2x + 1. Each function has associated with it what Frege calls a “course of values”—that is, a set of ordered sequences of objects that are inputs and outputs of the function. In the case of 2x + 1, it is the pairs: {<0,1>, <1,3>, <2,5>, …}. Concepts and relations are simply types of functions, for a concept such as “ x is equal to 2” is a function that takes objects as arguments and yields a true or false truth value as output. The extension of a...

semiography

semiography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,534 words

...by E. Nardochhio , pp. 173–192. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1992. Maranda, P. , and E. K. Maranda . Structural Models in Folklore and Transformational Essays . Paris: Mouton, 1971. Maranda, P. , and S. Nadeau . DiscAn: A Computer System for Content and Discourse Analysis . Version 2.0. Quebec: Nadeau Caron Informatique, 1989. Maranda, P. , and F. P. Nze‐Nguema . L'unité dans la diversité culturelle: Une geste Bantu . Quebec and Paris: Presses de l'Université Laval and A.C.C.T., 1992. McFeat, T. Small Group Cultures . New York: Pergamon, 1974. Osgood, C. E. ,...

expert systems

expert systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,220 words

...and its formal program, however, does not have any access to its environment other than the user's formal questions and answers. This explains why expert systems perform well in domains that are already rather formal, such as mathematics, games, problem solving in natural sciences, and so on. That is why most of the applications of expert systems are found in these domains, such as decision making in banks, diagnostic systems in the medical field, and tools for supporting the development of computer chips. The knowledge engineer plays a very important...

iconicity

iconicity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,113 words

...anecdotes according to which so‐called primitive tribes were incapable of interpreting pictures. Further, Eco considered that pictures, conforming to the ideal of the Saussurean sign, were as arbitrary or conventional as the sign studied by the most advanced of the semiotic sciences, general linguistics. Saussure himself never went to such extremes: in his unpublished notes, he recognizes the motivated character of both pictures and miming, but at least in the latter case he argues that the rudiment of convention found in it is sufficient to make it an...

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