You are looking at 1-20 of 26 entries  for:

  • All: Science 2.0 x
  • Archaeology x
clear all

View:

malachite

malachite  

Mineral, Cu2CO3(OH)2; sp. gr. 3.9–4.0; hardness 3.5–4.0; monoclinic; bright green; pale green streak; in fibrous condition with a silky lustre, crystals with adamantine or vitreous lustre; crystals ...
computer

computer  

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by manipulating ...
Stables

Stables   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,367 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1.04 >0.80? (2 * 1.79) ( 1988 , Abb. 9) Bastam Ostbau (Kleiss, 1988 ) — 2.92 — — Bastam Südtor ( ibid. ) — 2.75 0.99 — Bastam Bldg. NNE of Südtor ( ibid. ) 2 * 1.48 3.05 1.12 — Syrian Tel Hadar (Kochavi et al., 1992 ) 1.37 (est.) 3.6 (est.) — — Syrian ῾Ein-Gev (Kochavi, 1993 b ) ±1.34 ±2.60 — — Mean of modern authors above: 1.75 n = 5 3.08 n = 5 1.22 n = 3 0.91 n = 3 Standard Deviation mod. auth.: ±0.13 ±0.27 ±0.12 ±0.27 Mean of Holladay, 1986 , fig. 2: 1.81 n = 10 3.27 n = 9 1.20 n = 6 — Std. Dev. Holladay, 1986 , fig. 2: ±0.26 ±0.35 ±0.12 —...

῾Ubeidiya

῾Ubeidiya   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
713 words

..., hilltop site about 0.5 km east of Tell ῾Ubeidiya and west of the Jordan River, on a mound whose slopes range from 160 to 205 m below sea level. Geologically, this formation was originally named Melanopsis stuffe (Picard, 1943 ) and later as the ῾Ubeidiya Formation (Picard and Baida, 1966 ). Excavation of the prehistoric site of ῾Ubeidiya was sponsored by the Israel Academy of Sciences, under the direction of Moshe Stekelis ( 1960–1966 ) Ofer Bar-Yosef and Eitan Tchernov ( 1967–1974 ), and more recently with Claude Guérin of the University of...

Hadar

Hadar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
861 words

...of known absolute age), paleomagnetism, and fission track dating as well as K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of the volcanic horizons. The hominid fossil-bearing strata at Hadar span a time range from at least 3.4 million years to approximately 3.0 million years ago. The best age estimate for the Lucy skeleton is 3.2 million years old. Detailed anatomical study of the Hadar hominid collection led to the recognition that they were morphologically identical with those from the 3.5-million-year-old site in northern Tanzania known as Laetoli. In 1978 , because of...

Leilan, Tell

Leilan, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,671 words
Illustration(s):
5

...periodization and the significance of the Leilan IIId seal impressions for understanding North Mesopotamian secondary state formation in 2600 bce . Weiss, Harvey , and Maria-Agnes Courty . “ Entre droite épigraphique et gauche archéologique, y-a-t-il une place pour la science? ” Les Nouvelles de l'Archéologie 57 (1994): 33–41. Polemic and explanation of the third-millennium climate change and collapse data. Weiss, Harvey , Gil Stein , P. A. Akkermans , Dominique Parayre , and Robert Whiting . “1985 Excavations at Tell Leilan, Syria.” American...

Analytical Techniques

Analytical Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,644 words

...Timothy K. Earle , pp. 13–51. New York, 1982. Useful review of the application of chemical analyses in archaeology. Kolthoff, I. M. , and Philip J. Elving , eds. Treatise on Analytical Chemistry . 2d ed. New York, 1978– . Authoritative series on analytical chemistry that treats the field comprehensively. Pollard, A. M. , ed. New Developments in Archaeological Science: A Joint Symposium of the Royal Society and the British Academy, February 1991 . Proceedings of the British Academy, 77. Oxford, 1992. The most recent collection of specific applications of...

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,255 words

...environmental, and its vulnerability to changes of differing magnitudes created by stress from outside factors. Methods of Reconstruction. In reconstructing ancient landscapes and environments, methods have been borrowed from the earth sciences, botany, and zoology. Although the methods resemble those used in the natural sciences, objectives and research questions differ because they are related to archaeological goals and concerns. This has given rise to three basic environmentally oriented subdisciplines in archaeology: geoarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, and...

Dating Techniques

Dating Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,302 words

...dated by radiocarbon and those dates then define the chronozones. Arboreal pollen, expressed as a percentage of total tree and herb pollen, is a useful broad indicator of climate, being high in warm/wet periods and substantially lower otherwise. Bibliography Aitken, Martin J. Science-Based Dating in Archaeology . London, 1990. Comprehensive discussion of the techniques outlined in this article. Aitken, Martin J. , et al., eds. The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating . Princeton, 1993. Papers based on a meeting held at the Royal...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
9,563 words

...numbers continue to change somewhat as study continues) is as follows: Genesis (15), Exodus (15), Leviticus (8), Numbers (6), Deuteronomy (25), Joshua (2), Judges (3), Ruth (4), Samuel (4), Kings (3), Isaiah (19), Jeremiah (4), Ezekiel (6), Minor Prophets (8), Psalms (30), Job (5), Proverbs (2), Ecclesiastes (1), Song of Songs (4), Lamentations (4), Esther (0), Daniel (19), Ezra-Nehemiah (1), and Chronicles (1). As the list shows, every book of the Hebrew Bible appears among the Qumran caches, except for Esther ....

Metals

Metals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,951 words
Illustration(s):
5

...slags and crucibles from the Anatolian site of Nevalı Çori are from its Early Bronze I levels—not its Aceramic Neolithic ones—which is apparently true for its small copper objects as well. [See Nevalı Çori .] The shaft-hole mace-head from level 2b at Can Hasan ( c. 6000 bce ), made of very pure copper, with only 0.05 percent silver as an impurity, must also be made of native copper. The copper beads found in graves at the site of Mehrgarh, in Baluchistan, also date to about 6000 bce and should also be of native copper. They demonstrate that this simple...

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods   Reference library

David K. Wright

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,781 words
Illustration(s):
3

... fine 0.10–0.25 medium 0.25–0.5 coarse 0.5–1.0 very coarse 1.02.0 Gravel 2.0–75.0 Figure 1. Sediment classes according to proportions of clay, silt, and sand, based on the USDA classification method. Illustration by the author. Clays, silts, sands, and gravels are transported and deposited under different conditions. In the African context, where glaciers and polar conditions are rare, the transport processes generally fall into five categories: fluvial (alluvial), wind (eolian), alluvial fan, gravity-induced erosion (colluvial), and...

Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era

Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era   Reference library

Sophie Dulucq

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,493 words
Illustration(s):
3

...La reconstruction coloniale de l’histoire du Fuuta sénégalais au début du xx e siècle.” Outre-mers: Revue d’histoire 93 (2nd semester 2006): 57–78. Sibeud, Emmanuelle . Une science impériale pour l’Afrique? La construction des savoirs africanistes en France, 1878–1930 . Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 2002. Singaravélou, Pierre . Professer l’Empire: Les “sciences coloniales” en France sous la iii e République . Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2011. Suremain, Marie-Albane de . “Chroniques africanistes ou prémisses...

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent J. Hare and Emma Loftus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,060 words
Illustration(s):
4

...see Robyn Pickering et al., “Paleoanthropologically Significant South African Sea Caves Dated to 1.–1.0 Million Years Using a Combination of U–Pb, TT-OSL and Palaeomagnetism,” Quaternary Science Reviews 65 (April 1, 2013): 39–52. 20. For example, the dating of early hominid sites in Eurasia: Gunther A. Wagner et al., “Radiometric Dating of the Type-Site for Homo Heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, no. 46 (November 16, 2010): 19726–19730. 21. A. S. Murray and Ann G Wintle, “Luminescence Dating...

Archaeobotany: Methods

Archaeobotany: Methods   Reference library

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,900 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and wood charcoal, which tend to be different specializations carried out by different specialists. The smallest seeds are around 0.2 mm but most macro-remains are >0.5 mm and are studied with a basic low-power binocular microscope and reflected light. Wood charcoal fragments smaller than 2 mm are unlikely to be identifiable and microscopes need to range between 40× and 200×. In contrast, micro-remains are so small (<0.1 mm) that they can only be seen under a microscope. Sampling of sediments or residues for micro-remains are processed in a laboratory...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...3.0 (Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 2017), ; Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson , “Introduction,” in The Bantu Languages , ed. Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson , Routledge Language Family Series (London: Routledge, 2003). 2. Derek Nurse and Thomas J. Hinnebusch , Swahili and Sabaki: A Linguistic History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 14. 3. Etienne Patin et al., “Dispersals and Genetic Adaptation of Bantu-Speaking Populations in Africa and North America,” Science 356, no....

Archaeozoology: Methods

Archaeozoology: Methods   Reference library

Veerle Linseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,918 words
Illustration(s):
6

...African Savanna: Evidence from 1st Millennium ce Kirikongo, Burkina Faso,” Journal of Archaeological Science 39 (2012): 92–101. 83. Wim Van Neer , “Evolution of Prehistoric Fishing in the Egyptian Nile Valley,” Journal of African Archaeology 2 (2004): 251–269; and Ina Plug , Peter Mitchell , and Geoff Bailey , “Late Holocene Fishing Strategies in Southern Africa as Seen from Likoaeng, Highland Lesotho,” Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2010): 3111–3123. 84. Wim Van Neer , “Fishing in the Senegal River during the Iron Age: The...

Climatology: Methods

Climatology: Methods   Reference library

Sharon E. Nicholson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,177 words
Illustration(s):
22

...0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 degrees. 5 The full complement of data available from CRU is described at their website (www.cru.uea.ac.uk). It includes, in addition to monthly mean air temperature and monthly precipitation, records of maximum and minimum temperature and many other meteorological variables. A land precipitation data set running from 1901 to 1998 is available at both 5 degree latitude/longitude resolution and 2.5 degree by 3.75 degree resolution. 6 The University of Delaware data set also runs from 1901 to 2014 , but at a resolution of 0.5...

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes   Reference library

Justin Pargeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
5

...University Press, 2017) . 2. Karim Sadr, “Kalahari Archaeology and the Bushman Debate,” Current Anthropology 38, no. 1 (1997): 104–112. 3. Harry V. Merrick and Francis H. Brown, “Obsidian Sources and Patterns of Source Utilization in Kenya and Northern Tanzania: Some Initial Findings,” African Archaeological Review 2, no. 1 (1984): 129–152. 4. Haskel J. Greenfield, “The Origins of Metallurgy: Distinguishing Stone from Metal Cut-Marks on Bones from Archaeological Sites,” Journal of Archaeological Science 26, no. 7 (1999): 797–808. 5. ...

African Iron Production and Iron Working Technologies: Methods

African Iron Production and Iron Working Technologies: Methods   Reference library

Louise Iles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,261 words
Illustration(s):
18

...Pennsylvania University Press, 1990. Schmidt, Peter . Iron Technology in East Africa: Symbolism, Science, and Archaeology . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. Scott, David . Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals . Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Trust, 1991. Notes 1. Daniela Comelli et al., “The Meteoritic Origin of Tutankhamun’s Iron Dagger Blade,” Meteoritics and Planetary Science 51 (2016): 1301–1309. 2. The precise timing of the inception of iron production in different regions of Africa is much debated....

View: