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Overview

Russian

Subject: Linguistics

Russian is spoken as a first language by an estimated 167 million people and as a second language by a further 110 million. The vast majority live in Russia and ...

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Russia Physical map Political map Moscow Central Moscow Central Moscow St Petersburg...

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Russian roulette A potentially fatal game of chance in which a ‘player’ loads a bullet into one chamber of a revolver, spins the cylinder, puts the gun to his head and pulls the trigger. The practice was popularized by Russian officers at the tsar’s court in the months before and during the 1917 Revolution, when the term is first recorded. It subsequently gained a figurative sense to apply to any potentially dangerous activity. Black Russia See under black . White Russian See under white . Young Russia See under young...

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... In August 1991, Russia's traditional flag, first used in 1699, returned as the national flag. When Russia formed part of the Soviet Union, its flag featured a hammer and sickle on a red background. White represents nobility, blue stands for honesty, and red represents...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
20 words

... . Ceramics see Gorbunovo Porcelain Factory ; Kaliningrad ; St Petersburg Porcelain Factory . Glass see St Petersburg glass Factory . Metalwork see Tula...

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Michael Hollington

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
179 words

... . The ‘certain barbaric power’ in Little Dorrit , begun during the Crimean War , during which Dickens's sympathies were divided between anguish about bungling and red tape on the British side and anger against Russian aggression—‘Russia must be stopped’, he wrote on 3 January 1855 , confessing to ‘burning desires to cut the Emperor of Russia's throat’ ( 1 November 1854 ). Yet, unlike ‘civilized’ Great Britain, Russia appreciated Doyce ( LD ), and certainly counts as one of the ‘significant others’ of Dickens's imagination, belonging with other...

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Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... . Strictly speaking the term Russia refers only to the RSFSR, the largest of the sixteen republics which made up the USSR at the time of the Second World War. By the same token, ‘the Russians’, whose native language is Russian, were but one of the USSR's 70 recognized nationalities. During the Second World War, however, it was normal practice among westerners to use ‘Russia’ as a synonym for the USSR, and to talk of ‘the Russians’ in reference to all Soviet citizens. This was probably a hangover from The First World War when the Russian Empire had been...

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Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
318 words

... . To a 19th-century Englishman Russia was a land of mystery and danger. Ruled by an autocratic tsar, the ‘Russian Bear’ sprawled from Poland, deep in central Europe, through all of eastern Europe, and across northern Asia to the Pacific. As the Russians pressed southwards in Asia, their interests came into conflict with those of the British, from Persia to China. British foreign policy, especially towards the Mediterranean and the Middle East, became preoccupied with Russia, and preserving the decadent Ottoman Empire was one of its props. Britain felt it...

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,704 words

...are viewed by some as signs of Russia's intent to re-create the Soviet empire. Russia has also been concerned with the fate of the 26 million Russians living beyond Russia's borders in the “near-abroad.” Restrictive citizenship laws in Latvia and Estonia, conflicts involving the Russian-speaking communities of the Pridniestr region, Crimea, and northern Kazakstan, and a large in-migration of Russians from Central Asia and the Caucasus have attracted the attention of Russian politicians across the political spectrum. Russia has changed at an extraordinary...

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Karen Dawisha

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,659 words

...through Russia. Russia, for its part, wished to punish Ukraine by building alternatives routes to Europe that would go through Russia but bypass Ukraine—the South Stream pipelines. While Europe as a whole became very concerned about its dependence on Russian oil and gas, Russia also needed Europe as a market for this most vital export, which provides more than half of all revenues to the Russian state and makes its leaders rich through their role as private investors in these joint-stock energy companies. Russia and the Soviet Successor States. Russia has had...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by the state-run Gazprom. In the first decade of this century, Russia, by threatening gas supply, could impose policies on countries in Eastern Europe, but such a political use of gas supply made Russia’s Western European customers question the security of their own supplies and look for ways of avoiding Russian gas. Russia’s former Asian republics, with their own gas and oil, also started to free themselves from Russian control, entering direct deals with China, for example. New Russian fields in Siberia were becoming increasingly expensive to develop at...

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Allan H. Simmons

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
795 words

... . In the light of the sufferings of both his family and his nation at the hands of Russian overlords, it is unsurprising that Conrad’s private correspondence should reveal a consistently antagonistic attitude towards Russia and things Russian, and, in particular, that it should refute the charge of any Russian influence on his writing. For instance, in his letter of January 1924 to Charles Chassé, who, like other critics, had referred to his ‘Slavonism’, Conrad writes: ‘it would have been more just to charge me at most with “Polonism.” Polish...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Russia ( Rossiya ) , ( Rus′, Soviet Russia ) The Russian Federation (Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) since December 1993 . Rossiyskaya indicates that the Russian Federation is not a nation state (otherwise it would have been Russkaya ) but a state that includes many nations. Previously the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, by far the largest of the fifteen union republics comprising the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, commonly known as the Soviet Union ( 1936 ). Due to a change in ideological emphasis this title was adopted in place of the...

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Anda Lincoln

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... is a relative late-comer as a beer nation, but as of 2010 it had come to rank as the world’s fourth-largest beer market, after China, the United States, and Brazil. Beer, pivo in Russian, is the second most popular alcoholic beverage, after vodka, and it is generally preferred to wine. Russian beers are mainly lagers, and pale lagers are the most common. In Russia, beer is categorized by color, not by style, or the yeast that ferments it. Beer is therefore looked upon as simply light, red, semi-dark, or dark. Russians purchase beer mostly in cans and PET...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,691 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Russia has been accused of supplying the rebels with heavy weaponry, which it denies. Economy In the early 1990s the World Bank described Russia as a ‘lower-middle-income’ economy. In 1997 Russia was admitted to the Council of Europe; the same year, Russia attended the G7 summit, suggesting that it was now counted among the world's leading economies. Industry is the chief activity and light industries producing consumer goods are becoming important. Russia's resources include oil and natural gas, coal, timber, metal ores and hydroelectric power. Russia is...

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,657 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 2004 . Under Putin, Russia became an increasingly influential force in world affairs. Putin was critical of the Iraq War and the subsequent US occupation of Iraq. Russia also differed from US policy in its assessment of the threat emanating from Iran's nuclear policies, and maintained friendly relations with Iran. In domestic affairs, Putin embarked on a brutal policy of subjection in Chechnya. He re-established the authority of the Kremlin within Russia and increased Russian influence in the former USSR republics. As Russia became more significant as...

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Elmira Akhmetova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,133 words

... Experts on Russia's demographic development predict Muslim a majority in Russia in the second half of the twenty-first century. They observe the decline in the ethnic Russian population and the rapid growth among the country's ethnic Muslims. A significant gap exists between the birthrates of ethnic Russians and Russia's predominantly Muslim ethnic groups: 1.7 births per 100 women for ethnic Russians annually, which is below the replacement rate, and 4.5 births per 100 women for Muslim ethnic groups ( Hunter, 2004 , Islam in Russia , 45). In addition,...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Support for Balkan nationalism led Russia into World War I . The hardship which the war brought on the people was increased by the inefficient government of Nicholas II . A series of revolts culminating in the Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty and to the Russian Civil War , after which the Soviet Union was established in 1922 . The Russian republic was by far the largest of the Soviet republics, with 70% of the population. In 1978 it received a new constitution as the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,609 words

...Revolution, Russia's Muslim population stood at 20 million. Russian Federation's Muslim Population. There is no agreement among various Russian institutions and experts regarding the exact number of Muslims in the Russian Federation. Even the last census ( 2003 ) failed to provide exact information because the questionnaire did not include religious affiliation. Nevertheless, most estimates put the number of Muslims in the RF between 18 and 20 million (Hunter, pp. 43–44). In view of the higher birth rate among Muslims, the percentage in Russia's overall...

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The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,371 words

...historic restaurants of the world’, and it was there that French-Russian cuisine was most fully elaborated. Although the French influence, at least at the top of the culinary tree, was great, one must beware of supposing that any dish with russe in the title actually came from Russia. Charlotte russe, for example, as explained under charlotte , seems to have been invented by Carême in France or England and was only rechristened by Carême later. It is Sharlotka in Russia. As for ‘Russian salad’, as interpreted in western countries (i.e. diced cooked...

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Vladimir Pukish

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,485 words

...wine is important to Russians and comprises an increasing proportion of wine consumption. In 2012 , the Russians consumed 805 million l/213 million gal of still wine and 301 million l of sparkling wine, with official figures estimating that 65% of the market is domestically made wines and 35% is imported wines. The term ‘domestically made’ includes only 40 to 45% of wines made from Russian-grown grapes, the rest being based on imports of grape concentrate and bulk wine bottled in Russia. Another peculiarity of the Russian wine market is that...

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