You are looking at 1-20 of 2,751 entries  for:

  • All: Ruling Class x
clear all

View:

Overview

Ruling Class

A: Peter Barnes Pf: 1968, Nottingham Pb: 1969 G: Com. in 2 ...

Ruling Class, The

Ruling Class, The (1968)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Plays (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Class, The Author: Peter Barnes Date/place of 1st performance: 1968 , Nottingham Date of 1st publication: 1969 Genre: Com. in 2 acts; with prologue and epilogue Setting/time of action: Gurney Manor and other locations, England, 1960s Cast: 17m, 5f When the 13th Earl of Gurney accidentally hangs himself, his remaining son Jack inherits the earldom. Unfortunately, Jack is barking mad: he believes he is God, and is happy to spend time hanging from a cross. When he declares that all men are equal, his horrified uncle Charles declares: ‘he's...

Ruling Class

Ruling Class  

A: Peter Barnes Pf: 1968, Nottingham Pb: 1969 G: Com. in 2 acts; with prologue and epilogue S: Gurney Manor and other locations, England, 1960s C: 17m, 5fWhen the 13th Earl of Gurney accidentally ...
Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and sold it at what they considered a ‘fair’ price. The ruling classes had their own theatrical ways of displaying their authority. By and large the actual landowners only met the plebs face to face when cloaked in the majesty of the *law [8] or prepared to shower mercy and charity in order to cool plebeian discontent; otherwise they operated as employers and landlords through a range of less benevolent middlemen. This picture has been criticized as leaving out of account an emerging middle class, both commercial and professional, which, together with...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the English Working Class ( 1963 ). In this vein of ‘history from below’, scholars like Robert Malcolmson have shown that the ‘traditional’ recreational pursuits of the broad mass of the lower orders evoked a marked desire for control and containment on the part of the Georgian ruling classes. Particularly amongst the urban middling sort, we find a growing moral disapproval of blood sports such as bull-baiting and cock-fighting. This fear of and desire to delimit popular festivity was related in part to processes of *class [15] formation. Campaigns...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the middling and lower orders exerted considerable influence. In the urban centres, these classes developed a complex and sophisticated political and social culture that enabled them to influence elections to parliament and town councils, to propagate their views across the country, to associate together in a whole range of voluntary and independent societies, and to form pressure groups capable of influencing the political decisions taken by the propertied ruling class. This was a period of dramatic social and economic change. The *population of Britain...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...This emphasis is scarcely surprising when we consider that the ruling class of England had lived through the *French Revolution and the reign of terror, and had seen the development in Britain of a new urban industrial proletariat and mass democratic movement which mounted significant challenges to the political system on a number of occasions [ see *industrialization, 14 and *democracy, 3 ]. The development of modern police forces joined a number of other strategies designed by the ruling class to restore the social discipline and social order which were...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...wages and the consequence of dependence were only partially resolved in the idea of the cottage. Nor is there historical consensus about whether the new poor law was a radical break from the old system of relief, or part of a longer process of intellectual adaptation by the ruling class. From the late eighteenth century, a new analysis of poverty was developed in discussions of statutory and charitable relief. Sexual difference emerged as a key to understanding what had gone wrong with the system of poor relief and what could be done to remedy it. Dependence,...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1821 and 1831 . The earlier emphasis on patriotism as a state ideology, employed by the aristocratic élite in control of the state to dissipate and divert popular opposition, has given way to a focus on the prominence of patriotism in urban societies and middle class life in general. As a ruling device, patriotism is seen operating to best effect in the towns, where incumbent élites, interested in developing civic cultures and often faced with the problems of controlling large, disparate populations, readily appreciated how it could be used to unify their...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was to further reform causes, constitutional and legal as well as moral and social, while avoiding Spencean extremism; the utopia thus became a relatively risk-free forum for political speculation. Here it is constitutional degeneration through the vicious selfishness of the ruling classes and failure of the old aristocracy to uphold its ancient duties which has weakened Britain and left the nation open, through heavy taxation and an oppressive national debt, to the same scenario which occasioned the fall of the ancien régime in France. Even so the liberal...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the 1710 Act effectively negated traditional practice. The 1774 ruling in Donaldson vs Becket had the result of dramatically opening up the publishing trade in Britain. As Mark Rose has observed, the ‘works of Shakespeare, Bacon, Milton, Bunyan, and others, all the perennials of the book trade that the booksellers had been accustomed to treat as if they were private landed estates, were suddenly declared open commons’ (Rose, 53). W. Forbes Gray has characterized the ruling as ‘the Magna Charta of literary property’, since it helped to establish the...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Often, in the elementary school book, cultural expectations, social realities, and teleologies underlying developmental psychology collide. A book adopted for use in a system of national compulsory education is likely to promote the values of the established religion, ruling class, or dominant ethnic group. To minorities, however, school books may look more like instruments of colonization or hegemony than disinterested conveyers of knowledge. Countervailing such concerns is the powerful image of the solitary child engrossed in a book, cultivating the...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the public taste’. If anyone was a thief, said Ritson (in a private letter, leaked by his opponents), it was this ‘lying cleric’, Percy, who edited and altered oral culture for consumption by the polite classes. The press weighed in on either side, and the debate in the letter columns of journals is of great interest for its class consciousness and class hostility, as well as its implications for the notion of culture. Francis *Douce privately bound up Ritson 's Observations not with Warton 's History but with the ferocious debate it spawned; he...

Theatre

Theatre   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,088 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the governing classes and plebeians struck too close to home. Other notable stalwarts of the repertory were the pathetic tragedies Venice Preserv'd , by Thomas Otway , and Nicholas Rowe 's Jane Shore and The Fair Penitent . All three plays offered meaty roles for actresses, but their themes, focusing on the fateful collision of private desires and public virtues, crossed the gender divide in appealing to both male and female adherents of the cult of *sensibility [11] . Venice Preserv'd , which involves a conspiracy against a corrupt ruling order, was...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...can sever a relationship with a triple declaration of the phrase ‘I divorce thee’, still has practitioners. The oral quality of the bare talaq decree may make a paper trail difficult to find. Civil courts can grant Christians a divorce in Pakistan, and copies of a specific case ruling can be obtained from the court. Many ex‐servicemen and officers of the Pakistan Air Force emigrated to England in the 1950s and found good jobs with commercial airlines at Heathrow Airport. Some served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Indian Air Force and opted to go to Pakistan...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...carefully ruled to ensure regular and equal spacing of lines, and to calibrate texts in terms of page numbers. This was done either with a *stylus or, more commonly, with cords assembled in a frame ( misṭara ), which could be used to provide standard rulings throughout a volume ( cf . pricking and ruling ). Although some MS pages were designed to provide a comfortable balance between black and white through generous *margins and interlinear space, the high cost and uncertain availability of paper in many cases imposed cramped layouts making maximum use...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...history of the book in Italy is the absence of a solid middle-class readership. The term ‘middle-class’ here is a deliberate anachronism, designating a numerically consistent body of users who see the book as an instrument for self-improvement and as an expression of their own upward aspiration. Since Italy had enjoyed a higher level of urban *literacy than elsewhere in Europe during the early Renaissance and has never since lacked erudition nor scholars, to speak of the absence of a whole class of readers appears to be a contradiction. Nevertheless, this is...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and most notorious. And although bubonic plague disappeared from Britain around 1670 , epidemics of other types continued, and urban mortality was especially high between the 1670s and 1720s. Nor should one forget the frequent disruptions brought about by clashes within urban ruling circles, or between the towns and central government. Many English and Irish borough charters concentrated formal power within fixed councils, often filled by co‐option rather than election, but these councils were sometimes riven by feuds which became increasingly enmeshed into...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...passage of the Dissenting Chapels Act of 1844 . When William and Mary came to the throne in 1689 , some Churchmen, among them the Archbishop of Canterbury, could not bring themselves to break their oaths to James II , King by divine right, and to swear fealty to monarchs ruling by a less clear and arguably parliamentary title. These so-called non-jurors survived in dwindling numbers as a schismatic church for most of the eighteenth century, but early on, in alliance with some High Churchmen within the establishment, they gave spirited battle against...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...cautiously carried out their projects, and commercial publishers tried to survive without the flamboyance they had become used to. As Chinese scholars recovered, they looked inward to try to understand the sources of this transformation of power. At the same time, the Manchu ruling class, recognized for its grasp of military matters ( wu ), was eager to demonstrate its support for civil affairs ( wen ) through promotion of literate culture. During the Kangxi emperor’s reign ( 1662–1722 ), ambitious scholarly publications were initiated, and the *Wuyingdian ...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...examples in which enlightened writers or editors supplied the necessary hyphens: • “As a reader you are alerted by that direct, straight-to-the-heart-of-the-matter statement .” Lucile V. Payne , The Lively Art of Writing 65 ( 1965 ). • “The petition . . . argues that the ruling ‘took a major step away from settled law’ in the First Amendment's free-exercise-of-religion clause .” Wade Lambert & Wayne E. Green , “Subway-Begging Ban Is Backed on Appeal,” Wall Street J . , 11 May 1990 , at B8, B11. • “The survey was conducted by telephone Jan. 12–16,...

View: