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Royal Literary Fund

A benevolent society to aid authors and their dependants in distress, founded in 1790 as the Literary Fund Society at the instigation of the Revd David Williams, a Dissenting minister. In ...

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
137 words

... Literary Fund Founded in London in 1788 by the Dissenting minister David Williams in a coffee house on Conduit Street, it was originally called the Literary Fund. ‘Royal’ was added to its title in 1842 , thanks to the support of Prince Albert . It is a British benevolent fund that assists professional authors in financial need. Receiving benefactions from subscriptions, donations, and legacies (often from successful fellow authors), the fund has never enjoyed government subsidies. Until 1939 , an annual dinner was its principal fundraising activity....

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
111 words

... Literary Fund A benevolent society for authors and their dependants in distress, founded in 1790 as the Literary Fund Society at the instigation of the Revd David Williams ( 1738–1813 ), a Dissenting minister. In 1818 it was granted a royal charter, and was permitted to add ‘Royal’ to its title in 1845 . Beneficiaries have included S. T. Coleridge , Thomas Love Peacock , James Hogg , John Clare , D. H. Lawrence , Edith Nesbit , James Joyce , and Dylan Thomas . It has also made grants to literary refugees, including Chateaubriand . The Fund...

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
111 words

... Literary Fund A benevolent society for authors and their dependants in distress, founded in 1790 as the Literary Fund Society at the instigation of the Revd David Williams ( 1738–1813 ), a Dissenting minister. In 1818 it was granted a royal charter, and was permitted to add ‘Royal’ to its title in 1845 . Beneficiaries have included S. T. Coleridge , Thomas Love Peacock , James Hogg , John Clare , D. H. Lawrence , Edith Nesbit , James Joyce , and Dylan Thomas . It has also made grants to literary refugees, including Chateaubriand . The Fund...

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund   Reference library

Alan S. Watts

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
138 words

... Literary Fund . Founded in 1790 as the Literary Fund to give financial aid to distressed authors, their widows and orphans, it was incorporated in 1818 and accorded royal title in 1842 by Queen Victoria . Dickens became a member in 1837 , made his first public speech at the Fund's 1837 dinner, and became a member of Council in 1838 . Later he became highly critical, believing the Fund to be dominated by aristocrats and men of wealth who diverted its money to pay for lavish entertainments, administration, and upkeep of offices. He resigned from...

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... Literary Fund , a philanthropic fund and society set up at the urging of Revd David *Williams in 1790 to assist distressed writers or their dependents. The fund reflected both the full-blown *consumerism [19] of late-eighteenth-century authorship and also its fragility as a professional career at a time when publishers still held great *copyright advantages and when pirating of publications was widespread [ see *publishing, 21 ]. Although the fund was supported by the Prince Regent [ see *Regency ] and some influential literati, it was not well...

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
542 words

... Literary Fund . The Literary Fund was constituted in 1788 on the initiative of the Revd David Williams, with the intention of relieving the financial difficulties of distressed authors. Its first formal committee meeting was held in May 1790 . It was only in 1842 , thanks to the interest of Prince Albert , that the Fund added Royal to its title. Its main social and fund-raising event, an annual anniversary dinner, was first held in May 1792 . In 1839 Dickens was elected to the committee intent on reforming the Fund's constitution (he disliked the...

Royal Literary Fund addresses

Royal Literary Fund addresses   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
226 words

... Literary Fund addresses (speeches) . 1. 15 May 1861 . Literature promises to become a profession equal in status and earnings to law or medicine. 2. 13 May 1863 . Novels are useful and ornamental to civilization; they teach ladies to be women and men to be gentlemen. 3. 18 May 1864 . Let us single out for honour Mr Thackeray , who has recently died, as the greatest and kindest of English authors. 4. 2 May 1866 . A pioneer of civilization goes out into the wilds, eats horses, has a bad time of it, returns, writes a book, has a good time. Sir Samuel...

Royal Literary Fund

Royal Literary Fund  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A benevolent society to aid authors and their dependants in distress, founded in 1790 as the Literary Fund Society at the instigation of the Revd David Williams, a Dissenting minister. In 1818 it was ...
Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rather than industry that destabilized the profession. Without the steady government and royal patronage enjoyed by their continental counter-parts, British architects were at the mercy of the building cycle, itself profoundly sensitive to the mercurial booms and busts of a newly expansive free-market economy. In these circumstances, architects' economic and thus also social status became extremely precarious, a situation only slightly ameliorated by Soane's charitable ‘Fund for Distressed Architects’. Competing in the market-place also meant little time for...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Domenico *Dragonetti , the cellist Robert Lindley ( 1776–1855 ), and other leading London players. Often at such festivals the orchestra and choir were of enormous size, following the tradition of the 1784 Handel Commemoration at Westminster Abbey. Originating as charitable fund-raisers and expressions of spiritual and moral uplift, the festivals continued to give a platform to local musicians. Chapel singers were especially dedicated to their cause, even walking from one festival to the next; and enthusiasm was maintained as these informal gatherings...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Economic and Social Structure and the Centre for Metropolitan History. See also courts, manorial . http://www.statistics.gov.uk Office for National Statistics. Current and past census statistics and papers. http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk Economic and Social Research Council funded projects. http://www.history.ac.uk/cmh Centre for Metropolitan History. http://www-hpss.geog.cam.ac.uk CAMPOP. Ralph...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the teaching of French, but after the 1972 revolution, Malagasy literary production and printing have been actively encouraged. 6 Book production in Africa today Africa generates less than 2 per cent of global book production, and remains unable to satisfy its own book needs, importing some 70 per cent of its books from Europe and North America (and exporting about 5 per cent of its output). Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s hampered many African governments’ abilities to fund book development or subsidize publishing, much less stock libraries;...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...ventured into publishing: *Hurtig , an Edmonton bookseller since 1956 , and J. J. Douglas, later *Douglas & McIntyre of Vancouver. A publishing renaissance in the Atlantic region took shape around new presses and in scholarly, literary, and popular periodicals. By the 1980s , every province but Prince Edward Island was funding its writers and publishers. Quebec went further, with a policy giving bookshops wholly owned by Canadians resident in the province the exclusive right to sell to institutions. Together with federal and provincial support programmes,...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,017 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the average *press run for a textbook exceeded 5,000 copies, print runs for more literary works could be as small as a few hundred. Nonetheless, New Zealand’s most successful literary publisher, Caxton Press, managed to sustain quite a strong list in this small market. Begun by several like-minded friends from Canterbury University between 1933 and 1935 , Caxton quickly established a reputation for high-quality printing of well-regarded writers; but as other literary publishers came on the scene, Caxton returned to its roots as a printer. Similarly, the...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in both countries. Sweden had one (royal) printing house in 1600 , but seventeen in 1700 , six of them in Stockholm. Other towns with presses were Uppsala (from 1618 ), Västerås, Strängnäs, Kalmar, Linköping, and Gothenburg. In 1642 , the first complete bible in Finnish was printed in Stockholm; in the same year a press was established at the new Finnish Academy in Åbo. Another two presses were founded later in the 17 th century, in Åbo ( see gezelius ) and Viborg. The increasing number of printers weakened direct royal control, but governmental and...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... 1808 and 1830 . In Brazil, the print revolution corresponded to Rio de Janeiro’s rise between 1808 and 1821 as the metropolis of the Portuguese empire. When the royal family fled Lisbon and settled in Rio de Janeiro, the king lifted the ban on printing and established the official Impressão Régia (Royal Press) there, which opened with a few presses imported from England. The Royal Press produced roughly 1,200 titles on a variety of subjects over the course of thirteen years. When Brazil declared its independence in 1821 and constituted itself as a...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Library and the Royal Library. The Act further extended and codified the arrangement, with the four Scottish universities, the library of Sion College in London, and the Faculty of Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh gaining *legal deposit status. The range of institutions benefiting from this provision was narrowed early in the 18 th century, but it is in the 1710 Act that the seeds of the great copyright deposit collections can be found. The British Museum was established in 1753 ; four years later, it took possession of the Royal Library collection (...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to the *Book-of-the-Month Club and the *Literary Guild in America, had considerable success, as they were able to offer new titles more cheaply by buying in bulk for their membership. From the 1890s , literary agencies had grown to become a separate and profitable business. In 1935 , Curtis Brown, the international *literary agent , wrote that the days of the ‘good, kind, old-fashioned publisher who used to take over all of his author’s rights and re-sell at 50 per cent’ had gone. Successful literary properties commanded ‘so many widely varied...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of literary guidance was largely a casualty of this process; the connection between buying a book and affirming one’s ‘literariness’ grew weaker as well. Arguably, however, the rise of superstores was less detrimental to American culture than was the wave of mergers among publishers: purchasing books became unintimidating and the bookshop a more prominent feature of the retail landscape, encouraging buying of and conversation about books, if not more reading. Other mediators emerged to guide readers in choosing books. The relocation of literary critics to...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Crown. Filmed in colour, the jaunty manipulations of Olivier’s Richard amid the moral paralysis of the court have been seen as a counterpoise to both the triumph of the English in his Henry V ( 1944 ) and the dark, nostalgic brooding of Hamlet ( 1948 ). As part of its funding demanded, the film was broadcast on American television at the time of its release. Olivier’s film has overshadowed most of its successors: though Jane Howell’s Richard III for BBC TV ( 1983 ) drew critical acclaim—as had her productions of the Henry VI plays—for finding...

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