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Rome

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, ...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
34,176 words
Illustration(s):
8

... [ This entry includes three subentries, on the early history of Rome and the Roman Republic , on the Roman Empire , and on the city of Rome and its archaeology .] Early Rome and the Republic The historian Livy, writing several centuries after the founding of Rome, looked back upon that event and ascribed great foresight to the founders, both gods and men. They chose the site, he says, because its hills possessed the most healthful air, the river was so handy for bringing produce from the interior and receiving commodities from the Mediterranean,...

Rome

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Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... , favourite dwelling place of expatriate aspiring artists. ‘Talboys’ TAC2 GRH Graham...

Rome

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Anne Button

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... is the scene of much of Coriolanus and Julius Caesar , some of Antony and Cleopatra , and nearly all of Titus Andronicus , collectively ‘the Roman plays’. The Rape of Lucrece also has a Roman setting, while Cymbeline depicts the relations between Rome and ancient Britain. In the histories, ‘Rome’ is usually synonymous with the Catholic Church. Anne...

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...tasks and the like, are not accomplished without patient perseverance and a considerable interval of time. The saying is an old one. Rome was not bylt on a daie (quoth he) and yet stood Tyll it was fynysht. All roads lead to Rome See under all . Fiddle while Rome burns, To See under fiddle . King of Rome, The See under king . Seven hills of Rome, The See under seven . Sword of Rome, The See under sword . When in Rome, do as the Romans do See under when...

Rome

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,473 words

...influence until the middle of the 11th C. The Idea of Rome After Rome lost its position of political leadership in the 4th C., the idea (or myth) that Rome remained the center of the empire survived, but from the Byz. viewpoint it was a Rome transferred to Constantinople. Cassiodorus stated that Emp. Constantine I called Constantinople secunda Roma and placed this name on a marble column, but his report was evidently based on a post-Constantinian tradition; the Greek term New Rome ( Nea Rome ) is attested no earlier than 381, in canon 3 of the First...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
403 words

... . In 330 the capital of the Empire was removed from Rome to Constantinople, and thereafter the city declined in importance. Medieval Rome was a small city within the Papal State characterized by lawlessness and the feuds of its noble families, especially the Colonna and the Orsini . For most of the fourteenth century the papacy was seated in Avignon, and it did not return permanently to Rome until the accession of Pope Nicholas V in 1447 . Pope Nicholas, who is sometimes described as the first of the Renaissance popes, inherited a city that had been...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
202 words

... ( Roma ) Capital of Italy, on the River Tiber, w central Italy. Founded in the 8th century bc it was probably an Etruscan city-kingdom in the 6th century bc . The Roman Republic was founded in c .500 bc . By the 3rd century bc Rome ruled most of Italy and began to expand overseas. In the 1st century ad the city was transformed as successive emperors built temples, palaces, public baths, arches and columns. It remained the capital of the Roman Empire until ad 330. In the 5th century, Rome was sacked during the Barbarian invasions, and its...

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The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Rome of the persecutions and the catacombs is the setting for the story of St Cecilia ( SNT ). Then comes the time of St Jerome , ‘a clerk at Rome’ (III.673), and Boethius ( Boece ). From the 6th c. (apparently) come the legendary figures of Custance and her father the emperor ( MLT ). Contemporary Rome is represented too. The Wife of Bath had been there on pilgrimage (I.465), and the Pardoner has just come ‘fro the court of Rome’ with his indulgences (I.671, 687). In the eyes of satirists Rome was a hotbed of corruption: ‘at the court of Rome all...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
69 words

... . ‘The eternal city’, capital of modern Italy (embracing the Vatican City since the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between the pope and the Italian government of Mussolini), and major centre of Christianity since the arrival of Paul and Peter (the presence of the latter having sometimes been disputed). Both apostles are believed to have been martyred in Rome: St Peter's Basilica stands on the traditional site of Peter's...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
746 words

... ( early Christian ) . An early but not well-grounded tradition asserts that St Peter reached Rome in ad 42 . When the Epistle to the Romans was written ( c. ad 58 ), a large Christian community already existed at Rome. St Paul arrived between ad 59 and 61, and many scholars hold that his ‘ Captivity Epistles ’, as well as Mk., Lk., Acts, and 1 Pet., were written in Rome. The burning of the city under Nero ( ad 64 ) was the pretext for a general persecution of the Christians. Ancient tradition held that both Peter and Paul were martyred at...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,274 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(1941). R. Brentano , Rome before Avignon (1974). P. Brezzi , Roma e l’empero medioevale (1947). P. Delogu and L. Paroli , eds, Roma medievale: Aggiornamenti (1998). E. Dupré-Theseider , Roma dal comune di popolo alla signoria pontificia (1952). F. Gregorovius , History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages , tr. G. Hamilton , 8 vols in 13 (1894–1902). L. Halphen , L’Administration de Rome au Moyen Âge (1907). E. Hubert , Espace urbain et habitat à Rome du X e siècle à la fin du XIII e siècle (1990). R. Krautheimer , Rome: Profile of a City,...

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
897 words

...Rome was liberated from German control on 5 June 1944 , following the Allied victory at Monte Cassino, and a referendum led to the abolition of the monarchy in 1946 , with Rome becoming the capital of the Italian Republic. The proclamation of a Holy Year in 1950 and the holding of the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 revived the city's role as a major center for pilgrimage and tourism. Rome has also become noted for banking and insurance, fashion, high-tech industry, and filmmaking, while retaining many of the small craft businesses of its past. Rome's...

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
170 words

... The capital of the Roman Empire, traditionally founded in 753 bce . In NT times it had a population of about one million, mostly crowded into tenements, though the wealthy lived in pleasantly heated villas. The emperor * Augustus undertook a magnificent building programme for which materials were imported from Africa, Greece, and Asia Minor. Such commercial enterprise attracted to Rome a cosmopolitan mixture of customs, languages, and religions, though Greek was the language of communication. * Latin was spoken only by the social élite. There were...

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Chris Scarre

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,418 words

...the centuries. Less is known of the residential districts of ancient Rome, but much can be deduced from the available remains and from surviving records and other writings, which refer to many-storied tenement blocks in which most of the population lived. In archaeological terms, the development of Rome can be divided into five separate stages: the early settlement, the Etruscan city, Rome in the Republican period, the imperial centuries, and early Christian Rome. Tradition held that Rome was founded in 754 BC by twin boys, Romulus and Remus, who were...

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The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
2,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

...]. The Marvels of Rome . Translated with an introduction and commentary by John Osborne. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1987. Holloway, Julia Bolton . Saint Bride and Her Book. Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations . Newbury, Mass.: Focus Texts, 1992. Krautheimer, Richard . Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308 . 2nd ed. Foreword by Marvin Trachtenberg. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. Magnuson, Torgil . The Urban Transformation of Medieval Rome, 312–1420 . Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Rome, 2004. Richardson,L., Jr ....

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
3,128 words

...Roman territory was enlarged. Rome destroyed Alba, according to legend, when Tullus Hostilius was king ( see Horatii and Curiatii ), and under Ancus Marcius founded a colony at Ostia near the mouth of the Tiber. Etruscan influence became strong at Rome under Tarquin (1), said to be an adventurer, half Greek and half Etruscan, who came to try his fortune at Rome and won the throne, and under his two successors ( see kings of Rome ). It may be that the Etruscans, a powerful commercial and industrial people, conquered Rome; or they may simply have...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
31,688 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Rome (Rome, 1985) E. Hubert : Espace urbain et habitat à Rome du Xe siècle à la fin du XIIIe siècle (Rome, 1990) A. M. Romanini , ed.: Roma nel duecento (Turin, 1991) J. M. H. Smith : Early Medieval Rome and the Christian West: Essays in Honour of Donald A. Bullough (Leiden, 2000) T. Magnuson : The Urban Transformation of Medieval Rome, 312–1420 (Stockholm, 2004) N. Rubinstein and G. Ciapelli : Studies in Italian History in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 1: Political Thought and the Language of Politics: Art and Politics (Rome,...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,920 words
Illustration(s):
2

...I committenti, i documenti, le opere (Rome, 1994) 2. Tapestry . The weaving of tapestries in Rome began in the 15th century. Pope Nicholas V first attracted northern masters to Rome: in 1451 the Arras weaver Giachetto di Benedetto da Razzo ( fl 1441–57 ) began weaving the Life of St Peter (destr.) in the city, and in 1455 the Paris master Renaud de Maincourt ( fl 1451–7 ) also set up a workshop. Patronage continued briefly under Calixtus III , but both Benedetto da Razzo and Renaud left Rome the following year. Paul IV revived the...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,977 words

...a Roma . Corona Lateranensis 23. Rome, 1978. Caponetto, Salvatore . La riforma protestante nell'Italia del Cinquecento . Rome, 1992. Delumeau, Jean . Vie économique et sociale de Rome dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle . 2 vols. Paris, 1957–1959. See vol. 1, pp. 165–188. Deals with the theme of the presence of pilgrims in the city. Fagiolo, Marcello , and Maria Luisa Madonna , eds. Roma Sancta: La città delle basiliche . Rome, 1985. A collection of essays on various aspects of religious life in Rome in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,...

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Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
422 words

... was visited by George Eliot on two occasions. It was the principal destination of the Italian journey of 1860 : she and G. H. *Lewes concentrated on getting there by Palm Sunday , 1 April, and left for *Naples on 29 April. As was customary when they travelled, they supplemented guidebooks with other reading, such as H. G. Liddell 's A History of Rome from the earliest times to the establishment of the Empire ( 1855 ), as Lewes said, ‘to repair the breaches in our historical knowledge’ ( Journals , 328). But their preparation did not equip them for...

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