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Roman citizenship

In both the Greek and the Roman world in the Archaic period, it seems that communities were open to the arrival of people from elsewhere, at all social levels. Detailed rules for ...

citizenship, Roman

citizenship, Roman   Reference library

Michael H. Crawford

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
943 words
Illustration(s):
1

...obscure, Roman citizenship clearly developed in dialogue with the citizenships of other Latin communities. It involved the observance of the Roman civil law; and the struggles of the plebeians gradually brought protection for citizens from magisterial imperium . At all events, Roman citizenship came to possess two features which distinguished it from polis citizenship and which later surprised Greek observers: the automatic incorporation of freed slaves of Romans into the Roman citizen body; and the ease with which whole communities of outsiders could be...

citizenship, Roman

citizenship, Roman   Reference library

Michael H. Crawford

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
938 words

...citizenship clearly developed in dialogue with the citizenships of other Latin communities. It involved the observance of the Roman civil law; and the struggles of the plebeians gradually brought protection for citizens from magisterial imperium . At all events, Roman citizenship came to possess two features which distinguished it from polis citizenship and which later surprised Greek observers: the automatic incorporation of freed slaves of Romans into the Roman citizen body; and the ease with which whole communities of outsiders could be admitted as...

citizenship, Roman

citizenship, Roman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
766 words

..., Roman In both the Greek and the Roman world in the Archaic period, it seems that communities were open to the arrival of people from elsewhere, at all social levels. Detailed rules for citizenship were developed in both civilizations, as the city evolved, in the 7th to 5th or 6th to 5th cents. bc . In the case of Rome, Roman citizenship clearly developed in dialogue with the citizenships of other Latin communities. It involved the observance of the Roman civil law; and the struggles of the plebeians gradually brought protection for citizens from...

Citizenship, Roman

Citizenship, Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,581 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., Roman The conceptualization of communal membership at Rome and Roman practice in extending it have served since the second century bce as important indices both of the difference between Rome and its peers in the ancient Mediterranean and also of the evolution of the Roman state, first from archaic to classical society with respect to individual rights, and second from city-state to imperial state, as citizenship was extended widely to the population of the empire. The history of Roman citizenship in the classical period—namely, from the end of the...

Roman Citizenship and Latinitas

Roman Citizenship and Latinitas   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,699 words

...closeness to Roman citizenship. The history of the period to 338 b.c.e. and the subsequent arrangements are described in Cornell and Sherwin-White. There were two categories of municipia with local citizenship. Inhabitants of the first group also received full Roman citizenship rights, becoming cives optimo iure ; the first known example is Tusculum, soon after 381 b.c.e. This represented an advance in the concept of local citizenship, which became independent of actual residence in the city of Rome. The second group received citizenship sine...

Roman citizenship

Roman citizenship  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In both the Greek and the Roman world in the Archaic period, it seems that communities were open to the arrival of people from elsewhere, at all social levels. Detailed rules for citizenship were ...
Roman Citizenship and Latinitas

Roman Citizenship and Latinitas  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In the history of Roman law, the meaning of the term “Latin” varied with time and place. Three meanings must be distinguished:.1) Those known as Latins under the Republic fell ...
3 Maccabees

3 Maccabees   Reference library

Sarah Pearce

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,974 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...3 Maccabees is often seen as a crisis document, hence the attempts to locate the story's origins in persecutions or perceived persecutions of the Jews under Ptolemaic or Roman rule. If so, there is little in the story itself to suggest that it represents the concerns of an alienated community unhappily struggling for survival in the Diaspora. The story does not oppose Alexandrian citizenship for Jews—only when such status is dependent on abandoning Judaism. Alexandrians themselves are depicted as close and loyal allies of the Jews in the time of persecution....

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...throughout the empire. These included oppressive taxation, resulting not infrequently in the loss of one's land, and the billeting of soldiers stationed in the area. In 212, Emperor Caracalla (211–17) issued his “Constitutio Antoniniana,” which granted Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. Roughly a century later, the emperor Constantine prepared to do battle at the Milvian Bridge, setting in motion a chain of events that would radically alter the empire's religious landscape. The emerging Christian state, with its dual...

Philippians

Philippians   Reference library

Robert Murray, SJ and Robert Murray, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,932 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... follows appositely: it is right to want to be good citizens, ‘but our citizenship ( politeuma ) is in heaven’. Politeuma recalls the related verb in 1:27 and reinforces the case for taking it in civic terms, though many have understood both words more loosely in terms of way of life. The noun (often rendered ‘commonwealth’) refers to the state of which one is a citizen, either directly or by citizenship of an enfranchised colony, as Philippi was of Rome. Paul valued Roman citizenship and readily appealed to it at need; but just as humankind, created in...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

Craig Kallendorf

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of prose summaries, then first drafts for poetic composition. In the empire, discharged soldiers received a bronze diptychon called a * diploma , awarding them citizenship, land, and the right to marry. Inscriptions are also found on mosaics, coins, pottery, and gems. Parchment was known, but its use was widespread only among the Jews, then the Christians. From the early republic the basic Roman book was the papyrus scroll, developed along the Greek model. The papyrus was attached to a rod ( umbilicus ) of ivory, ebony, even gold, with handles ( bullae or...

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt   Reference library

Amy-Jill Levine

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...(such as the refusal to offer sacrifices to the emperor and to worship local or imperial gods, for which non-Jews accused them of “atheism”), Diaspora communities often formed individual semi-independent governmental structures. It is unlikely that the majority of Jews had Roman citizenship (as Paul of Tarsus did). On occasion, however, privileges were given to them; for example, Julius Caesar exempted Jews from military service, given the impossibility of their complying with either dietary or Sabbath practices when in the army. Not infrequently...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...plantations. It is worth checking locally for plantation records. In 1963 a group of Tamils petitioned the Queen, claiming citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies under the British Nationality Act 1948 and asking Her Majesty to intervene on their behalf with the Ceylon government. Those Tamils without Ceylonese citizenship and who were born in Ceylon to fathers who were born in Ceylon qualified for British citizenship. The National Archives at Kew hold under document reference DO 176/20 the original copy of the presentation of the petition, which...

Acts

Acts   Reference library

Loveday Alexander and Loveday Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
42,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the status of Roman citizen. The question of Paul's citizenship is hotly disputed ( see Légasse 1995 : 368–72 ). Paul's claim to be free-born ( v. 28 ) means that his status goes back at least to his father's generation, possibly earlier, to the period of the civil wars, when Roman generals granted citizenship to a number of individuals and associations in the Greek East who had supported their cause. The contrast with the tribune (whose name we discover in 23:26 to be Claudius Lysias) may be a sly dig at the growing laxity of citizenship grants, which...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...nowhere alludes to Roman citizenship, despite his readiness to boast about other items on his curriculum vitae when it served his purposes. Second, Paul's Roman citizenship could be seen as too neatly consistent with one of Luke's major themes—namely, that Roman officials repeatedly took the Christians' side, or at least demonstrated that they considered the movement to be no real threat to the order of the empire. But on the other hand, the sole premiss of Paul's final trip to Rome, as it is narrated in Acts, is his Roman citizenship, with the concomitant...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Notes 1. This speech and several essays on Iqbal's political thought appear in C. M. Naim , editor, Iqbal, Jinnah, and Pakistan (Syracuse, N.Y.: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, 1979). 3. [Iqbal equates “liberalism” with secularism.—Editor] 4. [The Khawarji, or Kharijites, were an early Islamic sect often called “p...

2 Maccabees

2 Maccabees   Reference library

R. Doran and R. Doran

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,060 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...IV had set up a new republic on the pattern of the Roman one and its citizens were to be called Antiochenes ( Goldstein 1983 ); (3) that a Hellenistic corporation was to be set up in Jerusalem whose members would be called Antiochenes ( Bickerman 1979 ); (4) that Jerusalem itself would now become a Greek polis , called Antioch-in-Jerusalem, and its citizens called Antiochenes ( Tcherikover 1961 ). The first three seem unlikely: even a king could not force a city to bestow en bloc citizenship on those of another city; Antiochus IV seems to have...

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding   Reference library

Nurcholish Madjid

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,874 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mankind, by relying on reason and the mind, has become involved in the attempts to discover the best ways of improving collective human life. In this modern age such expressions of human thought are encountered in those terms now heard so often, such as democracy, socialism, citizenship, communism and so forth. However erroneous these ideas may later be proved by history, they nevertheless represent the summit of human intelligence concerning our own social life, as a result of the realistic and intellectually stimulating observation of social...

Jewish Family Names

Jewish Family Names   Reference library

Alexander Beider

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
7,422 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...speakers (mainly from Ioannina, Greece). Beginning in the late 20th century, a new important source of Jewish immigration to the US was Israeli Jews. Though in many cases, this immigration has not been definitive (Israelis often move to the US to work while retaining Israeli citizenship), the number of Jews from Israel who are regularly living in the US numbers in the hundreds of thousands. The Israeli Jews brought not only names created in the diaspora, but also new names created in the Land of Israel during the 20th century. All these names are Hebrew....

Ezra–Nehemiah

Ezra–Nehemiah   Reference library

Daniel L. Smith-Christopher and Daniel L. Smith-Christopher

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,603 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The real issue, for the Persian officials, is whether Cyrus wrote such a document or not. A search must be made. This is a matter of the ‘pleasure’ ( cf. Kraeling ( 1953 ) , AP 27:21, 22; 30:23 ) of the king. Like St Paul ( Acts 22:25–6 ) finally appealing to his Roman citizenship, official wheels are set in motion with this claim. The disappearance of Zerubbabel without explanation is often grounds for speculation. Was Zerubbabel the centre of an attempt to restore a Davidic leader to the Jewish community, and eventually deposed in disgrace by the...

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