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Roman army

One of the most successful and long-lived armies of antiquity, it developed standards of discipline, organization, and efficiency that would not be seen again in western Europe until the ...

Roman Army

Roman Army   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Religion
Length:
487 words

...“client” kings) within the Roman ambit, such as the Herods . Soldiers from such armies are mentioned in Matthew 2.16 and Mark 6.17. Client kings often organized their armies on the Roman pattern. The Roman forces mentioned in the New Testament were all auxiliaries. As Jews were excused from conscription into the Roman army for religious reasons, the soldiers at the crucifixion and in Acts were probably Syrian, Samaritan , or Caesarean (from the non-Jewish population in Caesarea, the administrative capital of Judea): certainly, Herod the Great had...

Roman army

Roman army   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...to support it collapsed, not as a result of military defeat. Adrian K. Goldsworthy Elton, Hugh , Warfare in Roman Europe ad 350–425 (Oxford, 1996). Goldsworthy, Adrian , The Roman Army at War 100 bc – ad 200 (Oxford, 1996). Keppie, Lawrence , The Making of the Roman Army (London, 1984). Webster, Graham , The Roman Imperial Army (London,...

Roman Army

Roman Army   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
506 words

...“client” kings) within the Roman ambit, such as the Herods . Soldiers from such armies are mentioned in Matthew 2.16 and Mark 6.17 . Client kings often organized their armies on the Roman pattern. The Roman forces mentioned in the New Testament were all auxiliaries. As Jews were excused from conscription into the Roman army for religious reasons, the soldiers at the crucifixion and in Acts were probably Syrian, Samaritan , or Caesarean (from the non‐Jewish population in Caesarea, the administrative capital of Judea): certainly, Herod the...

camps, Roman army

camps, Roman army   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
273 words

...Roman army By the third century bc at the latest the construction of marching-camps to a fixed plan was a well-established practice. The sites of about 400 camps have been discovered in Britain alone, some in Scotland large enough (at, for example, 67ha or 165 acres) to accommodate an army. The camp was generally square or rectangular in shape, with at least one gate on each of the four sides. It was protected by a ditch ( fossa ) and a rampart ( agger ) of turves with a pallisade ( vallum ) on top, for which each soldier carried two stakes. The Greek...

army, Late Roman, physical evidence concerning

army, Late Roman, physical evidence concerning   Reference library

Jon Coulston

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., Late Roman, physical evidence concerning The wealth of sculptural iconography illustrating the 1st- to 3rd-century Roman army declined sharply in the later 3rd century. However, under the Tetrarchy there was a revival in monumental marble sculpture incorporating military themes. Triumphal arch reliefs are known from Rome (fragments of the Arch of Diocletian ), Thessalonica , and Nicaea . The Arch of Constantine in Rome also provides military images, especially on its running frieze. Marble fragments and antiquarian sketches of the fallen...

Roman army

Roman army  

Reference type:
Overview Page
One of the most successful and long-lived armies of antiquity, it developed standards of discipline, organization, and efficiency that would not be seen again in western Europe until the late ...
armies, Roman

armies, Roman   Reference library

Doug Lee

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the claim that the Late Roman army was ‘barbarized’, with the implication that this resulted in a weakening of the army’s effectiveness. However, the number of non-Romans serving in the army, whether as rank and file or in positions of authority, was probably fewer than often assumed. Furthermore, these recruits were valued for their military prowess and skills which complemented traditional Roman areas of expertise, continuing a long tradition of Roman assimilation. Doug Lee Jones , LRE , 607–86. H. Elton , Warfare in Roman Europe, ad 350–425 ...

armies, Roman

armies, Roman   Reference library

John Brian Campbell and R. S. O. Tomlin

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,260 words

..., The Roman Soldier (1969); P. Connolly , The Roman Army (1975); E. Luttwak , The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire (1976); J. C. Mann , JRS 1979, 175; L. Keppie , The Making of the Roman Army (1984); G. Webster , The Roman Imperial Army , 3rd edn. (1985); Y. Le Bohec , L'Armée romaine (1989); S. E. Phang , The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 BC-AD 235) (2001); N. Rosenstein , Rome at War (2004); P. Erdkamp (ed.), A Companion to the Roman Army (2007); L. de Blois and E. Lo Cascio (eds.), The Impact of the Roman Army (200 BC-AD...

armies, Roman

armies, Roman   Reference library

John Brian Campbell and R. S. O. Tomlin

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,002 words

...and auxilia as permanent garrisons of individual provinces, shaped Roman military thinking until the 3rd cent. ad and made military organization an integral part of imperial policy. The most striking development in the command of the Roman army was that from the end of the 1st cent. ad onwards, the emperor, who in his nomenclature and public portrayal bore the attributes of a Roman general, took personal charge of all major campaigns. John Brian Campbell Late empire The army of the late empire is brilliantly described by Ammianus Marcellinus ,...

armies, Roman

armies, Roman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
653 words

..., Roman Traditionally, Servius Tullius ( see rex ) made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so that the weapons they could afford determined their military role, with the richest serving as cavalry. Below these groups were the capite censī (‘assessed by a head‐count’)—men with no property, who were excluded from the army. Military service, therefore, although integral to the duties of citizenship, was also a privilege. This organization of the citizens...

Roman armies

Roman armies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Monarchy–3rd cent. adTraditionally, King Servius Tullius (c. 580–530 bc), made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into ...
Roman armies

Roman armies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Traditionally, Servius Tullius (see rex) made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so that the weapons ...
Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...half of the Roman army against the Volscian expeditionary force. 1.4–8 At the battlefront Martius reverses a Roman retreat, haranguing his soldiers and leading them into the Volscian city: the gates close behind him alone, but he survives to lead the successful taking of Corioles. Though wounded, he then joins Cominius’ temporarily withdrawing force, leading a fresh and decisive assault on Aufidius’ army. 1.9 Martius duels with Aufidius, driving back both him and the unwelcome fellow Volscians who take his part. 1.10 Before the victorious Roman army Cominius,...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Judaism in the often hostile environment of the Roman Empire. The Jewish Revolts of the Second Century In the aftermath of Titus's capture of Jerusalem in 70 ce , the Roman senate honored Titus and his father, the emperor Vespasian (69–79), with a grand triumphal procession, later memorialized in the Arch of Titus, which still stands in Rome. However, although the Roman army had succeeded in crushing the Jewish rebels, it...

Churches in Context: The Jesus Movement in the Roman World

Churches in Context: The Jesus Movement in the Roman World   Reference library

Daniel N. Schowalter

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,885 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...scholars have viewed the ministry of Jesus as a hostile response to oppression by the Romans and their representatives in the east. Certainly the Roman treatment of Jesus and later of his followers indicates that they were considered a threat to the peace. Although the senate recognized the importance of order and stability, it tended to look with suspicion on the success of any individual. Senators watched nervously as Augustus used his control over the armies to enhance his own authority and prestige. Having learned from the fate of his...

1 Maccabees

1 Maccabees   Reference library

U. Rappaport and U. Rappaport

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
27,583 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the Desert of Samaria’, RB 98: 252–71. Schwartz, S. (1991), ‘Israel and the Nations Roundabout: 1 Maccabees and the Hasmonean Expansion’, JJS 42: 16–38. Shatzman, I. (1991), The Armies of the Hasmoneans and Herod (Tübingen: Mohr[Siebeck]). ———(forthcoming) The Hasmoneans in Greco-Roman Historiography and Jewish Sources. Sherk, A. K. (1969), Roman Documents from the Greek East (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press). Stern, M. (1974–84), Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism (3 vols.; Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and...

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt   Reference library

Amy-Jill Levine

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of Roman political activities in Judea and Galilee, of the actions of the Jewish revolutionaries, of the general political climate in Jerusalem, of the role of the Pharisees and Sadducees, and of the extent of Gentile attitudes toward Jews during the first century ce must be viewed in the context of his apologetic motives. Yet regardless of the extent of his exaggeration, it remains the case that by the end of the year 67, Rome had retaken not only Jotapata and Tiberias, but all of Galilee. John of Gischala fled to Jerusalem, and the Roman army soon...

Latvian and Lithuanian Family Names

Latvian and Lithuanian Family Names   Reference library

Laimute Balode

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
1,702 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in Europe. On the eve of World War II, under the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Germany and the Soviet Union divided Eastern Europe. Latvia and Lithuania fell to the Soviets, whose troops invaded Latvia and Lithuania in 1940. The German Army took Riga in early July 1941, and the Red Army retook most of Latvia in July–September 1944. In 1941, occupying forces deported tens of thousands of Latvians to Siberia; in 1949, another 42,000 Latvians were deported there. At last, on May 4, 1990, independence was restored to Latvia with the collapse of...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...before their armies, Pompey accepts the triumvirs’ terms for peace, and the leaders repair to a feast on Pompey’s barge. Menas and Enobarbus reflect on Pompey’s unwise submission, and Enobarbus, reporting Antony’s marriage, again predicts that Antony will return to Cleopatra. 2.7 At the feast, Menas urges Pompey to cut the barge’s cable and assassinate the triumvirs; wishing that Menas had done this first on his own initiative, Pompey nonetheless refuses his suggestion. Lepidus is carried off drunk before the party disperses. 3.1 Victorious Roman forces, led by...

Cymbeline, King of Britain

Cymbeline, King of Britain   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...master, and takes Fidele into his service. 4.3 At court the Queen is sick with anxiety at Cloten’s absence. Cymbeline learns that Roman troops have landed, but Pisanio has heard nothing from either Posthumus or Innogen. 4.4 Belarius, Guiderius, and Arviragus, despite Belarius’ fear of being recognized, resolve to join the British army. 5.1 Posthumus, carrying the bloody cloth Pisanio sent, has come to Britain with the Roman army: repenting of Innogen’s death, he takes off his Italian clothes and resolves to fight on the British side. 5.2 In battle, Posthumus,...

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