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Roman Empire

Subject: History

The period when the Roman state and its overseas provinces were under the rule of an emperor, from the time of Augustus (27 bc) until 476 ad. The Roman empire was divided in 375 ad by ...

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
65 words

... empire Term applied to (i) the government of Rome under Augustus, the first Roman emperor, and his successors ( see Principate ), and (ii) the lands governed by the Romans at any time from about the third century bc , when her power began to expand beyond the Italian peninsula. For the division of the empire into two halves, see Byzantine age and fall of Rome...

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
193 words

... empire . Archaeological evidence for Irish contacts with the Roman empire is accumulating but its extent and effects remain controversial. Under the early empire any Romanization of western Britain was very limited: social structure and material wealth were not significantly different on either side of the Irish Sea. By the 4th century, however, Irish raids demonstrated that the Irish found western Britain sufficiently wealthy to reward the investment required to mount risky expeditions. The same impression is given by Irish settlements in western Britain;...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
588 words
Illustration(s):
1

... empire Roman empire. This map shows the expansion of the Roman empire at its greatest extent, in 117 ad . Rome expanded from a small settlement in the 6th century bc to rule most of the known European world by the early 2nd century ad . Having established control over Italy by c. 260 bc , Rome expanded to the east and west. By 133 bc all the territory formerly held by Carthage in the western Mediterranean and north Africa had been absorbed, together with Macedonia and Asia Minor in the east. Expansion continued for a further 150 years, the empire...

Roman Empire

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
275 words

... Empire Mediterranean empire formed ( c .27 bc ) by Augustus after the assassination ( c .44 bc ) of Julius Caesar . Its power centre was ancient Rome . The Romans adopted the culture of ancient Greece , but their Empire was based on military power and Roman law . In terms of technology and (arguably) culture, Roman civilization was not surpassed in Europe until the Renaissance . By the death of Augustus ( ad 14 ), the Empire included most of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and the whole North African coast. In the 1st and 2nd centuries, Britain was...

Roman Empire

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,100 words
Illustration(s):
1

...led Finley to underestimate the scale and the performance of the Roman economy. Frier, Bruce . Demography. In The Cambridge Ancient History , 2d ed., vol. XI, The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, 787–816. Cambridge, 2000. Garnsey, Peter . The Land. In The Cambridge Ancient History , 2d ed., vol. XI, The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, 679–709. Cambridge, 2000. Garnsey, Peter , and C. R. Whittaker . Rural Life in the Later Roman Empire. In The Cambridge Ancient History , vol. XIII, The Late Empire, A.D. 337–425, 277–311. Cambridge, 1998. Giardina, A. , ed. Societa...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,924 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Holy Roman Empire: From Charlemagne to Napoleon (2005). J. G. Gagliardo , Reich and Nation: The Holy Roman Empire as Idea and Reality, 1763–1806 (1980). H. J. Hahn , German Thought and Culture: From the Holy Roman Empire to the Present Day (1995). F. Heer , The Holy Roman Empire , tr. J. Sondheimer (German original, 1967) (1994). R. E. Herzstein , The Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages: Universal State or German Catastrophe? (1966). J. A. Parente Jr. , R. E. Schade , and G. C. Schoolfield , eds, Literary Culture in the Holy Roman Empire,...

Roman Empire

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The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,188 words

... Empire . Later Christian writers looked back to the origin of their faith and saw the work of divine providence in the coincidence of the birth of Jesus and the reign of Augustus , the first Roman emperor. Under Augustus and his successors, the empire stretched from the northwest corner of Europe to Egypt and from Mauritania to the Black Sea. It brought fifty million or more inhabitants under relatively stable rule—an ideal setting for the growth of a new religion. Rome Before the Emperors. Roman imperial institutions and ideas of citizenship went back...

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Colin M. Wells, R. J. A. Wilson, David H. French, A. Trevor Hodge, Stephen L. Dyson, and David F. Graf

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,461 words

...Roman and Post-Roman Europe ; Field Systems ; Pastoralism . ] D’Arms, J. The Romans on the Bay of Naples , 1970. Dyson, S. L. Community and Society in Roman Italy , 1992. Greene, K. The Archaeology of the Roman Empire , 1986. Percival, J. The Roman Villa , 1976. Pottery, T. The Changing Landscape of South Etruria , 1979. Pottery, T. Roman Italy , 1987. Salmon, E. T. The Making of Roman Italy , 1982. White, K. D. Roman Farming , 1970. Stephen L. Dyson Roman Empire: The Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman...

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The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,148 words

... Empire . Later Christian writers looked back to the origin of their faith and saw the work of divine providence in the coincidence of the birth of Jesus and the reign of Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Under Augustus and his successors, the empire stretched from the northwest corner of Europe to Egypt and from Mauritania to the Black Sea. It brought fifty million or more inhabitants under relatively stable rulemdash;an ideal setting for the growth of a new religion. Rome Before the Emperors. Roman imperial institutions and ideas of citizenship went back...

Roman Empire

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,305 words
Illustration(s):
3

...prosperity and development. It was only in the Roman period that most cities achieved their fullest flowering. Roman Empire Under Roman prosperity civic architecture flourished. Theaters, stoas, and gymnasia became regular features of Greek cities in the Roman Empire. The Roman contribution, however, was uneven. The basilica is rarely found in the East. The amphitheater occurs in such “Roman” cities as Berytus and Caesarea Maritima but is otherwise rare. In contrast, the hippodrome and that quintessentially Roman structure, the monumental arch, were popular...

Roman Empire

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The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,664 words

...used as afterpieces following tragedies and comedies and retained their popularity down to the end of the Empire, although by then they progressively lost ground to the Roman mime. Roman Festivals Roman festivals or funeral games provided the occasion for most performances. The Saturnalia was a yearly festival celebrated for one week starting on 17 December, during the season of winter planting. A holiday atmosphere prevailed much like Mardi Gras: the Romans chose a mock king and crowds danced in the streets. Business activity, as well as work, was suspended;...

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Scott C. WELLS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,222 words

...techniques from the Roman emperors. Furthermore many of these kings either descended from or themselves had been generals in the service of the Roman army (which had relied increasingly on foreign auxiliaries and military officers since the third century). Finally, when the Western Roman Empire ceased to exist as a separate entity after the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 ce , the emperor in Constantinople simply claimed legal authority over the entire Roman imperium for himself and his successors. The Eastern Roman Empire survived as a...

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Dynasties of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History
Length:
1,302 words

... W. Haase , II: Principat, pt. 2 (Berlin, 1975). Barnes, T. D. , The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge, Mass., 1982). Boardman, J. , J. Griffin and O. Murray , eds., The Oxford History of the Roman World (Oxford, 1991). Erdkamp, P. , ed., The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome (Cambridge, 2013). Grant, M. , The Roman Emperors: a biographical guide to the rulers of Imperial Rome, 31 BC–AD 476 (London, 1985). Mattingly, H. et al ., eds., The Roman Imperial Coinage (9 vols. in 12 pts., London, 1926–84). Paulys Realencyclopädie...

Holy Roman Empire

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
118 words

...Roman Empire European Empire centred on Germany (10th-19th centuries), which echoed the Empire of ancient Rome . It was founded ( 962 ) when the German king Otto I (the Great) was crowned in Rome, although some historians date it from the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 . The Emperor, elected by the German Princes, claimed to be the temporal sovereign of Christendom, ruling in cooperation with the spiritual sovereign, the Pope. However, the Empire never encompassed all of western Christendom, and relations with the papacy were often difficult. From ...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
159 words

...Roman Empire . Charlemagne was crowned as universal Roman Emperor by Pope Leo in 800, though he claimed only to rule the W. section, leaving the E. empire to continue at Constantinople until 1453 . After his son, the imperial title was held by W. rulers of diminishing territorial power until it lapsed in 924. In 962 Otto I of Germany was crowned Emperor in Rome by John XII ; his successors of the Saxon, Salian, and Hohenstaufen dynasties held the title until 1254 . The expression ‘holy empire’ was used from 1157 by Frederick I as a counterpart to...

Holy Roman Empire

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
241 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Roman Empire The empire set up in western Europe following the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor, in the year 800. Of the Holy Roman Empire. c .1100 By the end of the 11th century the Holy Roman Emperor was the crowned ruler of Germany, Burgundy, and northern Italy, in addition to his imperial role as temporal leader of Christendom, and the empire was close to its height in terms of cohesion and extent. The degree of power he exercised varied, however, at different times. Within Germany there was constant rivalry between the emperor and the rulers of...

Holy Roman Empire

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
660 words

...Roman Empire . Most historians view the slow dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire after 1648 as inevitable. The Thirty Years' War ( 1618–1648 ) devastated the Holy Roman Empire as France and Sweden seized territories, and constant warfare materially bled the empire and its inhabitants. The 1648 Peace of Westphalia increased individual territorial sovereignty at the expense of imperial authority. Better described as a “German confederation,” the Holy Roman Empire remained more a political institution than a conglomeration of states. Although the empire...

Holy Roman Empire

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich; Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium ) A conglomeration of princely states in western and central Europe founded in 800 at the time of the coronation of Charlemagne ( c . 742–814 ) as Charles I , King of the Franks ( 768–814 ) by Pope Leo III. The title then was Roman Empire; Holy was only added in 1157 . It reached its greatest extent during the German Hohenstaufen Dynasty (1138–1254) when it included present-day Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, eastern France, the Czech...

Holy Roman Empire

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
676 words

...Roman Empire or (Latin) Sacrum Romanum Imperium . . The ideal of a Holy Roman Empire was proclaimed at the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor on Christmas Day 800 and dissolved when Franz II abdicated on 6 August 1806 . This Second Empire, or Second Reich, was conceived as a revival of the Roman Empire that had begun with Augustus in 27 bc , adopted Christianity in 325 , and had ended in the West with the deposition of Romulus Augustus in 476 . The Roman Empire lived on in Constantinople until 1453 , but the gradual estrangement of the...

Holy Roman Empire

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
501 words

...Holy Roman Empire . Charlemagne was crowned as universal Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome on Christmas Day 800 , although Charlemagne himself claimed only to rule the W. section (Europa) , thereby leaving the E. empire at Constantinople to continue until 1453 . After his son Louis the Pious the imperial Roman title was held by W. rulers of diminishing territorial power until its temporary disappearance in 924 . In 962 Otto I of Germany, who was already also King of Italy, was crowned Emperor in Rome by Pope John XII ; Otto's successors...

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