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Rochester

Subject: Literature

(see) England’s second oldest diocese after Canterbury and established as a missionary centre for western Kent. Canterbury exerted unusual influence over Rochester throughout the MA. ...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
63 words

... (see) England’s second oldest *diocese after *Canterbury and established as a missionary centre for western *Kent . Canterbury exerted unusual influence over Rochester throughout the MA. Originally served by a chapter of secular *canons , the *cathedral became a monastic foundation after the *Norman Conquest . William J. Dohar C. H. Fielding , ed., Records of Rochester (1910). A. J. Pearman , Diocesan Histories: Rochester ...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
104 words

... 1881: 775; Northumb and Durham. 1 English: locative name from one of three places in Northumb with names whose early spellings are very similar and sometimes difficult to distinguish from each other. Rudchester in Ovingham, which is recorded as Rucestre in about 1250, Rodecastre in 1251, and Routchester in 1663, is probably the likeliest source of the surname, which is concentrated in the southern half of Northumb, but Rochester parish, recorded as Rouschestre in 1325, and a lost Ruchester in Chollerton, recorded as Rowchestre in 1348, are...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
479 words

...Church of Rochester (anon., ascribed to J. Lewis, but generally supposed to have been written by Dr Rawlinson; 1717). A. I. Pearman , Rochester (Diocesan Histories; 1897). W. H. St J. Hope , The Architectural History of the Cathedral and Monastery of St Andrew at Rochester (1900). W. N. Yates (ed.), Faith and Fabric: Rochester Cathedral 604–1994 (Woodbridge, 1996). J. P. McAleer , Rochester Cathedral, 604–1540: An Architectural History (Toronto and London, 1999). R. A. L. Smith , ‘The Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester, 604– c....

Rochester

Rochester (Australia, Canada, UK, USA)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Earthwork, or Fort’ from the Old English rūh ‘rough’ and ceaster . 3. USA (Minnesota): settled in 1854 and named after Rochester, New York. 4. USA (New Hampshire): named in 1722 after Lawrence Hyde ( 1641–1711 ), 1st Earl of Rochester, who was a friend of the governor of New Hampshire and he named the city after the earl. 5. USA (New York): founded as Rochesterville in 1811 and named after Colonel Nathaniel Rochester ( 1752–1831 ), the principal landowner. The name was shortened in 1822...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

Ruth Watanabe, Nina Davis-Millis, and Vincent A. Lenti

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,646 words

...administered by the Rochester City School District. It offers a diverse program of arts courses, including vocal, string, instrumental, and piano music instruction. Bibliography R.H. Lansing : “Music in Rochester from 1817 to 1909,” Publications of the Rochester Historical Society, Publications Fund Series , ii (1923), 135–85 S.B. Sabin : “A Retrospect of Music in Rochester,” Centennial History of Rochester, New York , ii (1932), 45–90 B. McKelvey : Rochester, the Water Power City, 1812–1854 (Cambridge, MA, 1945) B. McKelvey : Rochester, the Flower City,...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
433 words
Illustration(s):
1

...barons Rochester .  Wheel of Fortune (Rise of the Humble and Unseating of the Proud), wall painting on the northern wall entrance to the choir of the cathedral, 13th century. Photo credit: Colum P. Hourihane held it against King John ; the royal forces took the castle only after they managed to undermine the south-east angle tower. Bibliography W. St. J. Hope : The Cathedral and Monastery of St. Andrew at Rochester (London, 1901) R. A. Brown : Rochester Castle (London, 1969/ R 1997) D. Kahn : ‘The Sculptures of the West Doorway of Rochester...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
291 words

... Kent Cathedral town on the Medway and the A2. Dickens, who spent his youth in neighbouring Chatham , his honeymoon at Chalk , and his last years at Gad's Hill , made many references to the city. The poetic fervour of Mr Pickwick and his friend Snodgrass at their first sight of the Norman castle is tempered by Jingle's ‘Ah, fine place!…glorious pile—frowning walls—tottering arches—dark nooks—crumbling staircases—.’ The Royal Victoria and Bull remembers that it is the Bull Hotel where Pickwick and his creator stayed, and Eastgate House (plaque)...

Rochester

Rochester   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
218 words

... US frequency (2010): 4024 English (Northumberland and Durham): 1 habitational name from one of three places in Northumberland with names whose early spellings are very similar and sometimes difficult to distinguish from each other. Rudchester in Ovingham is probably the likeliest source of the surname, which is concentrated in the southern half of Northumberland, but Rochester parish and a lost Ruchester in Chollerton are both possible candidates. Rudchester in Ovingham may derive from Old Norse rauthr ‘red’ + Old English ceaster ‘(Roman) city,...

Rochester, Mr

Rochester, Mr ([Lit.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
90 words

..., Mr ( Edward Fairfax Rochester ) [Lit.] The hero of Charlotte Brontë 's novel Jane Eyre ( 1847 ), a handsome man but silent, brooding, and grim of temperament. > A brooding romantic hero Caroline put on a face of modesty, and then said she thought Mr Ramsay was handsome in a kind of scary way, like Mr Rochester in Jane Eyre. Robertson Davies Fifth Business 1970 Talk to me. Don't sit there looking gloomy and enigmatic like Mr Rochester. What's bothering you? Barbara Michaels Search the Shadows ...

Rochester, Mrs

Rochester, Mrs ([Lit.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
184 words

..., Mrs [Lit.] The deranged wife of Edward *Rochester in Charlotte Brontë 's Jane Eyre ( 1847 ) is kept in seclusion at Thornfield Hall. Her existence is only revealed when Jane's marriage to Rochester is about to take place. The early life of Bertha Rochester is imagined by Jean Rhys in her novel Wide Sargasso Sea ( 1966 ). > A strange or mad person who is kept locked or hidden away, especially in an attic You saw her once, didn't you?' said Nancy. ‘That's right. I just happened to look up and caught her peering at me from an upper window,...

Rochester, Bertha

Rochester, Bertha   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
325 words

...Rochester, Bertha , in Jane Eyre . Edward Fairfax Rochester , by his father's connivance with the Mason family, was encouraged to marry the handsome Bertha Antoinetta Mason , daughter of a wealthy merchant of Spanish Town, Jamaica. Dazzled by her appearance, seldom seeing her alone, Rochester thought he loved her, but after marriage discovered that her family was tainted by madness and that she was gross, intemperate, and unchaste. After four years of marriage, Bertha became prematurely mad. Revolted and despairing, Rochester contemplated suicide, but...

Rochester, Kent

Rochester, Kent   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
99 words

..., Kent . The see was founded by St Augustine , who consecrated St Justus its first bishop in 604. The cathedral, which was served in early times by secular canons, was damaged by the Mercians and by the Danes. Gundulf (Bp. 1077–1108 ) began a new cathedral, and in 1083 replaced the secular canons with Benedictines ; this cathedral was consecrated in 1130 . In 1343 the choir was rebuilt and a central tower added (replaced 1825–7 ). At the Dissolution , the priory surrendered in 1540 ; a secular foundation with a dean and canons was...

Rochester castle

Rochester castle   Reference library

Lynda Rollason

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
184 words

... castle (Kent) stands above the river Medway whose crossing it controlled. The first castle on the site was an enclosure within the Roman city walls. The present castle, also originally a ‘ringwork’, was begun by Gundulf , bishop of Rochester, for William Rufus 1087–9 . The castle was transformed by the addition of a tower keep built 1127–40 , after Henry I had granted the castle to the archbishop of Canterbury and his successors. The keep, which is 70 feet square and rises to the height of 113 feet to the parapet, was designed to be the...

Lord Rochester

Lord Rochester (1647–80)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
31 words

...0Lord Lord Rochester 1647 – 80 English poet . See also epitaphs A merry monarch, scandalous and poor. ‘A Satire on King Charles II’ (1697) merry monarch merry monarch scandalous and...

Lord Rochester

Lord Rochester (1647–80)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
124 words

...0Lord Lord Rochester 1647 – 80 English poet Here lies a great and mighty king Whose promise none relies on; He never said a foolish thing, Nor ever did a wise one. of Charles II ; an alternative first line reads: ‘Here lies our sovereign lord the King’ ‘The King's Epitaph’; see Charles II never said a foolish thing Nor ever did a wise one A merry monarch, scandalous and poor. ‘A Satire on King Charles II’ (1697) merry monarch merry monarch scandalous and poor For all men would be cowards if they durst. ‘A Satire against Mankind’ (1679)...

Rochester castle

Rochester castle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
83 words

... castle (Kent) stands above the river Medway whose crossing it controlled. The present castle was begun by Gundulf, bishop of Rochester, for William Rufus 1087–9 . It was transformed by the addition of a keep built 1127–40 , after Henry I had granted the castle to the archbishop of Canterbury. The defensive strength of the castle was demonstrated in 1215 when rebel barons held it against King John . The royal forces took the castle only after they managed to undermine the south‐east angle...

Rochester, New York

Rochester, New York   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
753 words
Illustration(s):
1

...even though the ship was docked in Rochester. During Reconstruction Douglass moved his family to Washington, D.C., but upon his death in February 1895 he was buried in Rochester. Four years after his 1895 death, a larger-than-life statue in his likeness was erected in the center of one of Rochester's busiest streets. Increasing traffic caused the statue to be moved to Highland Park, near his former home, which had been destroyed by a suspicious fire in 1872 . Several organizations and buildings in Rochester bear Douglass's name. His grave is a...

Rochester, diocese of

Rochester, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
206 words

..., diocese of . Now comprising west Kent, Rochester is the second oldest English see, founded by King Æthelbert of Kent in 604 , with Justus as first bishop. Paulinus , the former missionary to Northumbria, expelled in 632 , was bishop of Rochester ( 635–44 ). Despite its vulnerability to the 9th-cent. Danish invasions, it survived intact. The diocese consisted only of west Kent until the addition of Essex and most of Hertfordshire from London in 1845 ; this proved unsuccessful and they were removed to form the St Albans diocese in 1877 . In...

Rochester, Siege of

Rochester, Siege of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Siege of ( 1088 ) The attempt to capture Rochester in 1088 was the culmination of the first serious military threat against William II Rufus , son of William the Conqueror and king of England ( 1087–1100 ). Rufus’s coronation in September 1087 prompted a rebellion on the part of several powerful magnates, including Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and Robert, Count of Mortaine, on behalf of Rufus’s elder brother Robert Curthose , the Duke of Normandy. The siege of Rochester was a decisive victory that effectively ended the uprising. In March 1088 , the...

William of Rochester

William of Rochester   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
256 words

...of Rochester ( William of Perth ) ( d. 1201 ). A native of Perth and a fisherman by trade, he experienced a conversion as a young man and devoted himself to the care of orphans and the poor, once saving from certain death an infant left at the door of the church. In accordance with a vow, he set off on pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1201 . He took with him but one companion, a young man, who, after they reached Rochester, diverted him on a supposed short-cut and murdered him for his few possessions. His body was found by a madwoman, who garlanded it...

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