Update

View:

Overview

Richard I

(1157–99), king of England (1189–99). Richard has attracted legends in a way that bees are proverbially attracted to the honey‐pot. The process began in his own lifetime. ...

USA

USA   Reference library

David M. Kennedy, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, Richard Chapman, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, I. C. B. Dear, Shelby Stanton, David M. Kennedy, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Clayton R. Koppes

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
22,261 words
Illustration(s):
8

...had buoyed such tunes was missing in this greater, more terrible war: efforts such as ‘Goodbye Mama, I'm Off to Yokohama’ and ‘You're a Sap, Mr Jap’ fell flat. The reality of the war was captured more by such songs as Frank Loesser's ‘Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition’. Domestic dislocations received bittersweet recognition in a woman's lament, ‘They're Either Too Young or Too Old’. Nostalgia for a vanished world fuelled hits like ‘The Last Time I Saw Paris’ by Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein . New musical forms and entertainers came into the...

Richard I

Richard I ([Na])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
50 words

... I [Na] English king , also known as Richard Coeur de Lion (Richard the Lion Heart), of the House of Anjou (Plantagenets). Born 1157 , third son of Henry II . Married Berengaria , daughter of Sancho VI , king of Navarre. He died aged 42, having reigned nine years between 1189 and 1199...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–99)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
96 words

... I ( 1157–99 ) King of England ( 1189–99 ), known as Richard the Lion-Heart, or Coeur de Lion . He was involved in rebellions against his father, Henry II , before succeeding him. A leader of the Third Crusade ( 1189–92 ), he won several victories but failed to retake Jerusalem. He was a prisoner ( 1192–94 ) of Emperor Henry VI . Meanwhile, his brother, John , conspired against him in England, while in France Philip II invaded Richard's territories. The revolt in England was contained, and from 1194 until his death, Richard endeavoured to...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–99)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
77 words

... I ( 1157–99 ) ‘Cœur de Lion’, king of England 1189–99 , was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade and became a romantic figure in England (in the Robin Hood legends, for instance, and in Walter Scott 's The Talisman and Ivanhoe ), in spite of the fact that only six months of his ten-year reign were spent in England. For the Middle English verse romance see Richard Cœur de Lion...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–99)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
77 words

... I ( 1157–99 ) ‘Cœur de Lion’, king of England 1189–99 , was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade and became a romantic figure in England (in the Robin Hood legends, for instance, and in Walter Scott 's The Talisman and Ivanhoe ), in spite of the fact that only six months of his ten-year reign were spent in England. For the Middle English verse romance see Richard Cœur de Lion...

Richard I

Richard I (reg 1058–78)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... I [Riccardo Quarrel] , Prince of Capua, Count of Aversa, Duke of Gaeta ( reg 1058–78 ; d 5 April 1078 ). Italian ruler and patron of Norman origin. His father Ascletin was said to have fled to Italy with his brothers to escape the wrath of Robert I , Duke of Normandy ( reg 1028–35 ). Richard was a skilled condottiere and supporter of the Roman Church. By the Synod of Melfi ( 1059 ) he was invested with the principality of Capua by Pope Nicholas II ( reg 1058–61 ) in return for his fealty and military assistance: in 1061 he...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–1199)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
854 words
Illustration(s):
1

...But that was not his style. [ See also Acre, Siege of ; Crusades , subentry on Narrative (1180–1245) , and John .] Bibliography Gillingham, John . Richard Coeur de Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century . London: Rio Grande, 1994. Gillingham, John . Richard I . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999. Prestwich, J. O . “Richard Coeur de Lion: Rex Bellicosus .” In Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth , edited by Janet L. Nelson . London: King’s College London, Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies, 1992. Sean...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–99)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
217 words

... I ( the Lionheart ) ( 1157–99 ) King of England ( 1189–99 ) . Richard I was the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine . He was made Duke of Aquitaine at the age of twelve and in 1173 joined his brothers in their rebellion against Henry. Richard spent only six months of his life in England. Soon after his coronation he left with the Third Crusade and in Palestine in 1191 he captured Acre and defeated Saladin at Arsuf. The following year, after concluding a three-year truce with Saladin, he set out overland for England. He was...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–99)   Reference library

S. D. Lloyd

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
840 words

... I ( 1157–99 ), king of England ( 1189–99 ). Richard has attracted legends as bees are proverbially attracted to the honey-pot. The process began in his own lifetime. Already, by 1199 , the epithet Cœur de Lion/Lionheart was being applied, and within another 50 years certain episodes in his life had taken on a legendary significance. The myth-making has continued ever since with inevitable distortions and misunderstandings of the historical Richard. In the popular imagination today, Richard is a national English hero, the valorous warrior and glorious...

Richard I

Richard I (b. 8 Sept. 1157)   Quick reference

The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
627 words

... I , king of England and duke of Normandy, and lord of Ireland, b. 8 Sept. 1157 , 3rd s. of Henry II and Eleanor ; acc. 3 Sept. 1189 ; m. Berengaria of Navarre , 12 May 1191 ; d. 6 Apr. 1199 ; bur. Fontevrault. The reputation of Richard ‘Cœur de Lion’ (‘Lion-heart’) has fluctuated wildly. The Victorians were divided. Many of them admired him as a crusader and man of God, erecting an heroic statue to him outside the Houses of Parliament; Stubbs, on the other hand, thought him ‘a bad son, a bad husband, a selfish ruler, and a vicious man’....

Richard I

Richard I   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
467 words

... I ( 1157–99 ), king of England ( 1189–99 ). Richard has attracted legends in a way that bees are proverbially attracted to the honey‐pot. The process began in his own lifetime. Already, by 1199 , the epithet Cœur de Lion/Lionheart was being applied. In the popular imagination today, Richard is a national English hero, the valorous warrior and glorious crusader who struggled against all the odds to come within an ace of recapturing Jerusalem from the equally legendary Saladin on the Third Crusade. The massive bronze statue of Richard in Westminster Palace...

Richard I Lionheart

Richard I Lionheart   Reference library

Charles M. Brand

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
163 words

... I Lionheart , king of England ( 1189–99 ); born Oxford 8 Sept. 1157 , died Chalus near Limoges 6 Apr. 1199 . While en route to the Holy Land to participate in the Third Crusade, Richard learned that some of his fleet had been shipwrecked on Cyprus ( Apr. 1191 ). The basileus Isaac Komnenos held Crusaders captive and threatened the ship carrying Richard's affianced bride Berengaria . Arriving in early May, Richard forced a landing, defeated Isaac , and ultimately took him captive. He conquered the island and appropriated the large treasure...

Richard I (‘Lionheart’), king of England

Richard I (‘Lionheart’), king of England (1157–99)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
310 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Richard ’s final years. Wounded in a typically rash sortie, he died in Châlus, Aquitaine. Long romanticized for his military genius and sensational adventures, or condemned for his brutality in victory and his neglect of English affairs, he has more recently received praise for his *administrative and diplomatic skills. See also germany ; plantagenet/angevin dynasty ; roman empire [hohenstaufen dynasty] . Effigy of Berengaria (d. 1230), queen consort of Richard I, in Le Mans abbey. Conway Library, Courtauld Institute of Art, London Tomb of Richard I...

Best R[ichard] I[rvine]

Best R[ichard] I[rvine] (1872–1959)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Literature
Length:
89 words

...R[ichard] I[rvine] ( 1872–1959 ) , scholar. Born in Derry and educated at Foyle College, he lived in Paris, where he met Kuno Meyer . He translated Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville's lectures at the Collège de France ( The Irish Mythological Cycle and Celtic Mythology , 1903 ). In 1904 he became a librarian at the National Library of Ireland, and was appointed Director in 1924 . His Bibliography of Irish Philology and of Printed Irish Literature ( 1913 ), was followed by Bibliography of Irish Philology and Manuscript Literature: Publications ...

Richard I Coeur de Lion

Richard I Coeur de Lion (1157–1199)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
509 words

... I Coeur de Lion ( 1157–1199 ) Third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine , Richard did not expect to inherit the English crown . Until the premature death of his elder surviving brother Henry, “the young king”, in 1183 , his interest centred on Aquitaine , his mother's duchy , which he had received in 1172 . His reign in England began in 1189 and was short and controversial, sandwiched between the greatly contrasting reigns of Henry II and John . Apart from a few months in 1189–1190 when he was preparing for the third crusade and...

Tyrconnel, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl (I)

Tyrconnel, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl (I) (1630–91)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
202 words

...Richard Talbot, 1st Earl (I) ( 1630–91 ) . Talbot , a younger son from Co. Kildare, fought for the king in the 1640s and escaped from the destruction of Drogheda in 1649 . In the 1650s he was appointed a groom of the bedchamber to the duke of York in exile and for the rest of his life his fortunes followed his patron’s. He fought alongside the duke at the naval battles off Lowestoft in 1665 and at Sole Bay ( Southwold ) in 1672 and, though a catholic, was made colonel of a regiment of horse. As soon as the duke became James II , Talbot was...

Tyrconnell, Richard Talbot, I st earl of

Tyrconnell, Richard Talbot, I st earl of (1630–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
258 words

...Richard Talbot, I st earl of ( 1630–91 ), Catholic leader. The youngest son of a Co. Meath Old English family, Talbot fought with the Catholic and royalist forces in the Confederate War , narrowly escaping death at Drogheda , then served with the future James II in the French and Spanish armies. Following the Restoration he emerged as the leading Irish Catholic spokesman at court. A rake and duellist, he was noted for his violent tongue but proved himself a shrewd and subtle political manipulator. After James's accession Talbot, now earl of...

Richard I ‘the Lionheart’, King of England

Richard I ‘the Lionheart’, King of England (1157–99)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... I ‘the Lionheart’, King of England ( 1157–99 ), whose equestrian statue stands outside the Houses of Parliament of a country he cared little about, is one of the more remarkable examples of the triumph of propaganda over reality. He was a virtual parricide, a profligate monarch, a faithless vassal, a rancorous ally, and (or so it has been alleged) a devoted homosexual, yet the balladeers made him into the beau ideal of knighthood , complete with all the trappings of courtly love and nobility of spirit. He doomed the Angevin empire in France by...

Richard I

Richard I   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
84 words
Richard I

Richard I  

(1157–99),king of England (1189–99). Richard has attracted legends in a way that bees are proverbially attracted to the honey‐pot. The process began in his own lifetime. Already, by 1199, the epithet ...

View: