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Revolt of the Comuneros

A rebellion in Castile by a group of towns called the Comuneros. The rebellion was social in nature, but was precipitated by the accession of Charles I (later Charles V) ...

Comuneros, Revolt of the

Comuneros, Revolt of the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
350 words

..., Revolt of the , or (Spanish) Comunidades de Castilla or Guerra de las Comunidades , A rebellion in Castile by a group of towns called the Comuneros. The rebellion was social in nature, but was precipitated by the accession of Charles I (later Charles V ) to the throne of Castile and his subsequent departure for Flanders. Charles was regarded as a foreigner who spoke no Spanish, and he had aggravated Castilian resentment with a series of foreign appointments, notably the Burgundian Guillaume de Croy as archbishop of Toledo and the Dutchman ...

Revolt of the Comuneros

Revolt of the Comuneros  

A rebellion in Castile by a group of towns called the Comuneros. The rebellion was social in nature, but was precipitated by the accession of Charles I (later Charles V) ...
Padilla, Juan LÓpez de

Padilla, Juan LÓpez de   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
155 words

...rebel leader, born in Toledo; he was the eldest son of the commendador mayor of Castile in the Order of Santiago. In May 1520 he emerged as the leader of the insurrectionists in the Revolt of the Comuneros against Charles V . His forces captured the castle at Tordesillas where Queen Juana la loca was incarcerated, vainly hoping that she could lead a national government. Padilla subsequently proposed reforms that alienated aristocratic support for the revolt, and was deposed as leader in favour of the aristocratic Pedro Girón . After his...

Maldonado, Juan

Maldonado, Juan   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
222 words

...all 1550 ), a remarkable Lucianic dream-vision of Spain's utopia (or dystopia) in the New World ( Somnium , 1541 ), a history of the Revolt of the Comuneros ( De motu Hispaniae ), and an elegant humanist reworking of Vitae sanctorum ( 1550 ). Juan Maldonado is sometimes confused with his Jesuit namesake Juan Maldonado . Eugenio Asensio and Juan Alcina Rovira , Paraenesis ad litteras: Juan Maldonado y el humanismo español en tiempos de Carlos V (1980); Heliodoro García García , El pensamiento comunero y erasmista de Juan Maldonado ...

Valladolid

Valladolid   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
338 words

...of the crown of Castile. It was for centuries the chief commercial and political centre of Castile and the seat of the Castilian chancery and royal courts (audiencia). The town occasionally served as a royal residence, and Ferdinand II of Aragon ( Ferdinand V ) and Isabella of Castile were married there in 1469 . In 1520–1 Valladolid was the centre of the Revolt of the Comuneros and later of Protestant groups which were crushed by the Inquisition in the late 1550s. Philip II established his court in Valladolid (where he had been born), but the...

Adrian VI

Adrian VI   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
511 words

...Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros until Charles ascended the throne in 1517 . Adrian was appointed bishop of Tortosa and inquisitor for Aragon and Navarre in 1516 ; the following year he was created cardinal of Utrecht, and in 1518 his inquisitorial duties were extended to Castile and León. Charles became emperor in 1519 , and during his protracted absence ( 1520–2 ) for the imperial coronation, Adrian served as regent, in which capacity he presided over the suppression of the Revolt of the Comuneros . Adrian was still in Spain when he was elected pope in...

Quiñones, Francisco De Los Angeles

Quiñones, Francisco De Los Angeles (1475–1540)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
438 words

...of the Comuneros in Castile ( 1520–1521 ), Quiñones acted as a mediator between the rebels and the monarch, Charles V. In 1526 , when Charles V alienated the papacy by pursuing war in Italy, Quiñones mediated between pope and emperor; and when the Sack of Rome made the pope Charles V's prisoner in 1527 , it was Quiñones who helped gain his release and draw up a peace treaty. As a reward, Pope Clement VII made him a cardinal. Pope Clement also asked Quiñones to produce a new breviary, the liturgical book containing the psalms, hymns, prayers, and lessons...

Toledo

Toledo   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
593 words

..., the most prominent of the archbishops, was one of the most powerful figures in Spain, and even commanded its armies. The University of Toledo was founded in 1498 , and remained in the city until 1845 . In 1520–1 Toledo was the seat of the Revolt of the Comuneros , which was precipitated by the accession of Charles I (later Charles V ) to the throne of Castile. In 1560 Philip II established his capital in nearby Madrid, and thereafter the political and commercial importance of Toledo declined. Toledo was the setting of many of the plays of Lope...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,022 words

...provoked the Revolt of the Comuneros , in part because of the cost of Charles's pretensions to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, which he obtained in 1519 . Charles's various European inheritances meant that his role as king of Spain was only one of many claims on his attention and presence. In all he paid seven visits to Spain and lived there for a total of eighteen years (he lived in Germany for eight years and in the Netherlands for 28 years); his principal concerns were combating Protestantism in Germany, establishing imperial rule in Italy and the...

Segovia

Segovia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... the city was obdurately rebellious in the Revolt of the Comuneros. As a result of the destruction of the old cathedral in the revolt, the city’s last great building project began in 1522 : the rebuilding of the cathedral. The treasury moved to Madrid in 1586 and was succeeded by the royal mint, which remained until 1730 . Minimal development in the city after the 16th century has left a remarkably unspoilt ensemble of old streets and buildings intact, despite the sack of the city by the French in 1808 . 1. S Millán .   2. Cathedral . 1. S Millán. Of...

Charles V

Charles V   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,670 words

... Italy ), the eruption of Protestantism in Germany, Ottoman incursions in eastern Europe (Belgrade fell in 1521 ), and the Revolt of the Comuneros in Spain. In 1521 Charles attended the Diet of Worms with a view to securing a settlement with the German Protestants, but the following year he had to return to Spain to deal with the final stages of the Revolt of the Comuneros; he was to remain in Spain from 1522 to 1529 . In 1522 his former tutor Adriaan Dedal was elected as Pope Adrian VI , which for a short time gave Charles a formidable ally in...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,772 words

...but the enormity of the emperor's responsibilities was such that the Spanish at first feared the absorption of their interests by larger imperial concerns. The revolt of the Comuneros in 1520 was an expression of these worries and of Castilian distaste for Charles's counsellors, most of whom were from his native Low Countries. Although they were indeed destined to be absorbed by his empire, what the Castilians could not have foreseen was that their incorporation would not be as a subsidiary kingdom but as its heart and soul. The gradual evolution of...

Charles V

Charles V (1500–1558)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,028 words

...clear at the Diet of Worms on 19 April 1521 , the day after Luther had taken his stand. He stated that he would uphold the faith of his fathers, for which he was prepared to risk everything, and that Luther, a single monk, erred to go contrary to the opinion of Christendom. He issued the Edict of Worms against Luther and then left for Spain, not yet knowing that the Comuneros were defeated. By the time he returned to Germany in 1530 , the upheavals of the Knights' Revolt and Peasants' War had passed, formal recesses had weakened the edict and called...

Central and South America

Central and South America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
9,794 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of royal administration in New Spain from 1765 to 1771 . Among other initiatives as secretary of state for the Indies from 1776 to 1787 , he named visitors-general for Peru and New Granada with instructions to raise taxes and implement other changes. Adding fuel to prior grievances, these actions provoked the Tupac Amaru rebellion in Peru and the Comunero revolt in New Granada in the early 1780s. The powerful Portuguese minister, the Marquis de Pombal, promoted both commercial and administrative reform in Brazil, but avoided inciting serious rebellion. The...

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army   Reference library

Marco Estrada-Saavedra

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,878 words

...were aware of their weak position in relation to the finqueros. 13 The Chiapanecos in Chiapa de Corzo, in the Central Valley, likewise had no real reason to revolt against the Ladinos; despite the division of their lands under the Reform Laws, many had become smallholders, and those who were unable to acquire any of the divided land found work and material safety on small- and medium-sized Ladino properties, at the edge of uncultivated lands. 14 The Culture of the Finca The fincas were private plantations formed beginning in the second half of the 19th...

Benito Juárez and Liberalism

Benito Juárez and Liberalism   Reference library

Guy Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
19,940 words

...the start of a rupture between the Mexican Catholic Church and the Liberal state that would not be healed until the renewal of relations with the Holy See in 1992 . 66 Conservatives generals, urged on by exiled clerics in Havana and led by Santa Anna’s former minister of finance, Antonio Haro y Tamariz, took up arms in Puebla, which became the theater of armed conflict over the subsequent nine months, culminating in the expulsion of Bishop Labastida. 67 Although the Puebla revolt had been defeated by December 1856 , the battle lines of the Three...

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