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Reformation

Subject: History

The 16th-century movement for reform of the doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church, ending in the establishment of Protestant churches. The starting point of the ...

Reformation

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,163 words

...W. The Protestant Reformation, 1517–1559 . New York, 1985. The best recent consideration of the “Age of Reformation” in European history. Strauss, Gerald . Law, Resistance, and the State: The Opposition to Roman Law in Reformation Germany . Princeton, 1986. Discusses the “reformation” of German law and its relation to the Reformation. Wohlfeil, Rainer . Einführung in die Geschicte der deutschen Reformation . Munich, 1982. Offers a social-historical introduction to the German Reformation with an overview of the term “Reformation” and a survey of the...

Reformation Studies

Reformation Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,576 words

...Reformation. O'Day, Rosemary . The Debate on the English Reformation . London, 1986. A detailed historiographical study of the English Reformation, including coverage of the lively revisionist discussions of recent decades. Ozment, Steven , ed. Reformation Europe: A Guide to Research . Saint Louis, 1982. A collection of essays by fifteen scholars covering major areas and aspects of Reformation research, each with a bibliography for further research. Scribner, Robert . The German Reformation . London, 1986. A short but densely packed survey of Reformation...

Radical Reformation

Radical Reformation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
7,850 words

...force of the Reformation era, the other being the Counter-Reformation, the radical Reformation was an interrelated religio-social entity and dynamic, not a merely conceptual aggregate of opponents of the three main Protestant churches. The historiography that separates the radical Reformation as a conceptual unity distinct from magisterial Protestantism was, ironically, inaugurated in the comprehensive but polemical treatment of “Anabaptism” by the Reformed divine Heinrich Bullinger ( 1504–1575 ) of Zurich. To him the radical Reformation was a many-headed...

Catholic Reformation

Catholic Reformation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,114 words

...founded a “Company for Christian Reformation” in 1536 , had to change its name. Anyone who maintained that the church had need of reform had to make the term more specific by adding the adjective “Catholic” if he wanted to distinguish himself from the Reformation led by Luther, Calvin, and others. According to Johannes Gropper , a canon of Cologne, a “ pia et catholica Reformatio ” was what good Christians longed for ( 1541 ). Thus, as early as the sixteenth century, people were consciously using the term Catholic Reformation to designate a movement that...

Reformation

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
236 words

.... The Reformation started in 1517 , when Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the Schlosskirche in Wittenburg, Germany. Luther's attack on the corruption of the Church and the doctrines of papal supremacy, transubstantiation , and clerical celibacy won the support of several German princes. In Zurich, Switzerland, the Reformation was led first by Ulrich Zwingli , and then by John Calvin . Calvinism was adopted in France ( see Huguenots ), the Netherlands, and Scandinavia. In England, the Reformation was more politically than religiously...

Reformation

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
152 words

... . Between Luther's protest of 1517 and the Roman Inquisition 's reconstitution in 1542 , Italians were free to accept or reject the crucial doctrine of justification by faith. By 1519 Lutheran literature was already circulating in Italy, and innumerable highly placed Catholics (including bishops and cardinals) became crypto-Lutherans. Ochino 's evangelism and the anonymous tract Beneficio di Cristo proved very persuasive. But the Protestant Reformation took shallow root in Italy, and never enjoyed popularity except in certain well-defined...

reformation

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
788 words

... , The religious reform movement of the early sixteenth century which began with the reform of abuses in the Catholic Church and culminated in the emergence of Protestantism and the secession of reformed churches in central and north-west Europe. The leaders of the Reformation churches, such as Luther , Calvin , and Zwingli , are known as the reformers, and the movement of Catholic renewal in reaction to Protestantism is known as the Counter-Reformation . In the 1990s historians began to dissent from the singular form of the term, preferring...

Reformation

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The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,517 words

...a warning, on the eve of the Reformation, of the awful prospects that might follow from a reformation of the ‘rascal multitude’. John was not the hero but the anti‐hero, representing the threat of what the people, the many‐headed monster Hydra, might do if kings or bishops fell down on the job. The Scottish Reformation came late. There is a rough but accurate rule of thumb for reformations in Europe, whether urban or territorial. The later they came, the more rapid and authoritarian they were. In Scotland, a magistrates' reformation took charge, with little or...

Reformation

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,077 words

...began to dissent from the singular form of the term ‘reformation’, preferring instead to speak of ‘reformations’; the plural form is now particularly favoured by Catholic historians who wish to depict the secession of Protestant churches as only one stage in a movement of Catholic reform that began in the 11th century and extended to the 18th. In the model that conceives of the Reformation as an early 16th-century movement centred in Germany and inaugurated by Luther, the precursors of the Reformation are deemed to be the reform movements initiated by John...

Reformation

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,268 words

...the papacy. In Ireland, similarly, the Reformation was initially a product of dynastic politics, imposed on those areas of the country subject to the English king. But, though the English Reformation provided an influential model, the Irish context was substantially different, and the end result totally contrary. In England, state, church, and people became Protestant: in Ireland, church and state adopted the Reformation, but the people remained resolutely Catholic. The failure of the popular dimension of the Reformation created a basic and often bitter divide....

Reformation

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
274 words

... The 16th-century movement for reform of the doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church , ending in the establishment of Protestant churches. The starting point of the Reformation is often given as 1517 , when the German theologian Martin Luther launched his protest against the corruption of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church, although he was breaking no new controversial ground. In fact, most of the Reformation movements laid stress, not on innovation, but on return to a primitive simplicity. Luther’s theological reading led...

Reformation

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The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
74 words

... is a civil remedy to reformulate a document such as a contract , usually to reflect the parties’ intent after the plaintiff proves fraud or mistake, but sometimes to meet minimum fairness standards (e.g., if unconscionable terms were used) or other legal standards (e.g., to avoid restraint of trade). Once a contract is reformed, the plaintiff often shows that as rewritten it was breached, and requests restitution. See also Procedure, Civil David S....

Reformation

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The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
1,834 words

...who recorded his (hostile) feelings; see A. G. Dickens , ‘ Robert Parkyn's Narrative of the Reformation ’, English Historical Review , 62 (1947). The English Reformation has attracted new work during the 1980s and 1990s, much of it in the form of local studies, e.g. Christopher Haigh, Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire ( 1976 ), and Ronald Hutton, ‘The Local Impact of the Tudor Reformations’, in Christopher Haigh (ed.), The English Reformation Revised ( 1987 ). The conclusions of modern scholars are challenging and controversial. Thus,...

Reformation

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
125 words

... Religious movement in Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. Although there were differences in the interpretation of scripture among the Protestant Reformers, Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, they were agreed that the inter-testamental (deuterocanonical) works included in the * Apocrypha were not to be regarded as part of scripture (and Luther also rejected the epistle of James from his inner * canon as lacking explicit reference to Christ). They also insisted that scripture should be regarded as canonical in the original languages of Hebrew and...

Reformation

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Euan Cameron

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,113 words

...Polity , brought to birth by the end of the 16th cent. Euan Cameron Cameron, E. , The European Reformation (Oxford, 1991); Cowan, I. B. , The Scottish Reformation: Church and Society in Sixteenth-Century Scotland (New York, 1982); Dickens, A. G. , The English Reformation (1964); Donaldson, G. , The Scottish Reformation (Cambridge, 1960); Haigh, C. (ed.), The English Reformation Revised (Cambridge, 1987); Sheils, W. J. , The English Reformation, 1530–1570 ...

Reformation

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
652 words

... Although ‘reform’ means many things, ‘the Reformation’ always denotes the 16th‐cent. division of Latin Christendom into protestant and catholic. Protestantism rejected the catholic belief that salvation comes through grace received in the sacraments; it restricted the church's role to one of proclaiming the unmerited gift of divine forgiveness. The Church of England , established by statute in 1559 , was unambiguously protestant. The church in England c. 1500 was devoutly catholic and loyally papalist. Many parish churches were extravagantly...

Reformation

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
274 words

... Referring primarily to the religious history of Europe in the early 16th century, though it can include both John Wyclif and the 15th-century Lollards and the later period to 1700 . In its primary sense, the initiating event was the challenge to the selling of indulgences issued by Martin Luther in 1517 . This attack on corrupt practices quickly developed into a repudiation of the primacy of the pope and the ecclesiastical authority of Rome, and, led by Jean Calvin in Geneva, Ulrich Zwingli ( 1484–1581 ) in Zurich, and John Knox in...

Reformation

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
275 words

... Referring primarily to the religious history of Europe in the early 16th century, though it can include both John Wyclif and the 15th-century Lollards and the later period to 1700 . In its primary sense, the initiating event was the challenge to the selling of indulgences issued by Martin Luther in 1517 . This attack on corrupt practices quickly developed into a repudiation of the primacy of the pope and the ecclesiastical authority of Rome, and, led by Jean Calvin in Geneva, Ulrich Zwingli ( 1484–1581 ) in Zurich, and John Knox in Scotland...

Reformation

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Basil Smallman

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
872 words

...Reformation . A radical change in religious thought, initiated in Germany in 1517 by Martin Luther , and in Switzerland in 1519 and 1541 by Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin , respectively, which led to the growth of the various forms of Protestantism. Its consequences for church music were far-reaching. In Germany the influence of Luther, an Augustinian monk by training and a traditionalist by nature, ensured the preservation of much of the ritual and music of the ancient Church, provided it did not conflict with his theological reforms. Though...

Reformation

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The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
611 words

... . The Protestant Reformation of the English Church began in 1534 with Henry VIII's decision to renounce papal supremacy and become head of the Church of England . This was soon followed by the dissolution of the monasteries between 1536 and 1540 and the suppression of the cults of some local saints, which considerably reduced the number of minor holy days. In 1538 a new set of royal injunctions brought about the first major alteration in local worship at the parish church. These injunctions ordered the churchwardens of every parish to...

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