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Ravenna

A city near the Adriatic coast in NE central Italy, which became the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402 and then of the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy, afterwards serving as capital ...

Ravenna

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
600 words

...; and Justinian .] Bibliography Gillett, Andrew . “ Rome, Ravenna, and the Last Western Emperors. ” Papers of the British School at Rome 69 (2001): 131–167. Revising the traditional view of the relative importance of Rome and Ravenna in the fifth century, Gillett argues that Rome was the more significant political center, while Ravenna's principal role was to serve as a link to the court at Constantinople. Mauro, Maurizio , ed. Ravenna Romana . Ravenna, Italy: Adriapress, 2001. Surveys Ravenna's history and buildings from the city's origins through the...

Ravenna

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
613 words

... of Agnellus (q.v.). G. [C.] Susini and others, Storia di Ravenna (5 vols, in 6; Ravenna, 1990–6). F. W. Deichmann , Frühchristliche Bauten und Mosaiken von Ravenna (Baden-Baden, 1958); id. , Ravenna, Hauptstadt des spätantiken Abendlandes (3 vols. in 4 parts + plans, Wiesbaden, 1969–89). T. S. Brown , ‘ The Church of Ravenna and the imperial administration in the seventh century ’, EHR 94 (1979), 1–28, is more wide-ranging than its title implies. G. Bovini , Ravenna Mosaics (Greenwich, Conn. [1956], London, 1957; repr. Oxford, 1978)...

Ravenna

Ravenna   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
128 words

... . According to tradition, the first Bp. of Ravenna was St Apollinaris . In 402 the imperial court of the W. Empire moved to Ravenna; in 493 Ravenna fell to Theodoric the Ostrogoth, who used it as his capital and patronized the Arian Church in the city. In 540 it was captured by the Byzantines; it served as the capital of the beleaguered Byzantine province until it fell to the Lombards in 751. Its importance elevated the status of its bishops who were placed over a newly created metropolitan province in the 5th cent. and given the title of...

Ravenna

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Bryan R. Ward-Perkins

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
477 words

... , city of the Po delta ( see padus ), in ancient times in a marshy and lagoonal setting (similar to those of modern Comacchio and Venice), but now on dry land some kilometres from the sea. The earliest excavated remains are of the 5th cent. bc , though an inscribed Etruscan figurine of slightly earlier date is known to come from the site. In the last century of the republic, Ravenna was allied with Rome; it was described by Strabo (5. 1. 7) as the largest city of the Po marshes, built of wood and criss-crossed by watercourses. In 49 bc Ravenna was...

Ravenna

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
6,131 words
Illustration(s):
2

...fasi di lavoro nella decorazione musiva del Battistero degli Ariani’, Felix Ravenna , lxxv (1957), pp. 5–24 M. G. Breschi : La cattedrale ed il battistero degli Ariani a Ravenna (Ravenna, 1965) F. W. Deichmann : Ravenna , i (1969), pp. 209–12; ii/1 (1974), pp. 251–8 C. Rizzardi : ‘L’arte dei Goti a Ravenna: Motivi ideologici, aspetti iconografici e formali nella decorazione musiva. Seminario internazionale di studi sul tema: “Ravenna e l’Italia fra Goti e Longobardi”, Ravenna, 14–22 aprile 1989’, Corsi Cult. A. Ravenn. & Biz. , xxxvi (1989), pp....

Ravenna

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Neil Christie and Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., ed., Ravenna e il porto di Classe: venti anni di ricerche archeologiche tra Ravenna e Classe (1983). S. Gelichi , ed., Storia di Ravenna. Vol. 1: L’evo antico (1990); A. Carile , ed., Storia di Ravenna ; vol. 2.1: Dall’età bizantina all’età ottoniana: territorio, economia e società (1991); vol. 2.2: Dall’età bizantina all’età ottoniana: ecclesiologia, cultura e arte (1992). E. Cirelli , Ravenna: archeologia di una città (Contributi di Archeologia Medievale 2, 2008). M. Verhoeven , The Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna: Transformations and...

Ravenna

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,646 words

...Italy: University Press, 1983. Bolognesi, Dante , ed. Ravenna in età veneziana . Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 1986. Ferilli, Guido . Il porto di Ravenna: Dalla ricostruzione ai giorni nostri . Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 1999. Giovannini , Carla , and Giovanni Ricci . Ravenna. Rome: Laterza, 1985. This work is essential for understanding the history and urban development of Ravenna and its port since antiquity. The volume has many pictures taken from old prints. Ravenna Port Handbook: Guida del porto di Ravenna . Colchester, U.K.: Land and Marine, 1998. Bilingual...

Ravenna

Ravenna (Italy, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Ravenna , Italy, USA Italy (Emilia-Romagna): possibly derived from the pre-Latin rava ‘a stony slope subject to landslides’ with the Etruscan suffix enna ; it may have been founded by the Etruscans. The city was the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402–76 , of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 476–540 , and of Byzantine Italy in 540–751 ....

Ravenna

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
613 words

...direct political control by the Venetian republic ( 1449–1509 ), the sack of Ravenna by French troops in 1512 was merely the culmination of a slow decline that had begun three centuries before. G. Bovini , Ravenna Mosaics , Oxford, 1978. G. Fasoli , “Il dominio territoriale degli arcivescovi di Ravenna fra l'VIII e l'XI secolo”, I poteri temporali dei vescovi in Italia e in Germania nel Medioevo , C. G. Mor (ed.), H. Schmidinger (ed.), Bologna, 1979, 87-140. Storia di Ravenna , A. Carile (dir.), Venice, 1989–1993 (3 t. appeared in 4 volumes). François...

Ravenna

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
79 words

... City in Emilia-Romagna, ne Italy. It was the capital of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century ad . It then became capital of the Ostrogothic kingdom and then the seat of the Byzantine government in Italy. An independent republic in the 13th century, it was under papal rule from the 16th to 19th centuries, becoming part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860 . Industries: petroleum, natural gas, furniture, cement, fertilizers, sugar refining. Pop. ( 2000 ) 139,771; 350,223...

Ravenna

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Neil Morris

Dictionary Plus Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
97 words

...Ravenna A city in north-east Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region near the Adriatic coast. An ancient settlement, it became part of the Roman Republic in 89 bc , and capital of the Western Roman Empire in ad 402 , of the Ostrogothic kingdom ( 493 ), and of Byzantine Italy ( 554 ). It came under the kingdom of Italy in 1861 . It is noted for its mosaics dating from the early Christian and Byzantine period, such as those in the Basilica of San Vitale ( 547 ), and there is a National Museum of Antiquities. Population ( 2011 ) 153,700. Neil Morris...

Ravenna

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The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,746 words

... and its port, Classe, an estuarine harbour protected by marshes on the land side, was a N. Italian naval base under the Roman Empire. When the Eastern and Western Empires were established, with Constantinople as the capital of the East, the Western capital was moved from Rome first to Milan , and then, under increasing barbarian pressure, to Ravenna in 402/4, which became the most important Western outpost of Byzantine rule, and also of Byzantine art . The Emperor Honorius (395–423) and his half-sister Galla Placidia were responsible for establishing...

Ravenna

Ravenna   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
459 words

...reconquered Ravenna in 540 . Between 568 and 584 the Byzantines introduced exarchs into Ravenna and the exarchate became one centre of Byzantine *administration in Italy. The exarchal regime, combining military and civilian powers, was unstable, owing to local revolts and quarrels with Constantinople. Ravenna fell to the *Lombards in 751 . As early as the 730s the popes began to claim authority over Ravenna . The *Carolingians liberated Ravenna from the Lombards but assigned the *papacy only limited authority. Ravenna became a...

Ravenna

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,294 words

...was demolished in 1733 . T.S. Brown , The Interplay between Roman and Byzantine Traditions and Local Sentiment in the Exarchate of Ravenna , SettStu (1988) 127–60. Idem , The Aristocracy of Ravenna from Justinian to Charlemagne , CorsiRav 33 (1986) 135–49. A. Guillou , Ravenna e Giustiniano , CorsiRav 30 (1983) 333–43. R.A. Markus , Ravenna and Rome, 554–604 , Byzantion 51 (1981) 566–78. F.W. Deichmann , Ravenna 2.2 (Wiesbaden 1976). Krautheimer , ECBArch 176–78, 181–87, 232–37, 277f. Kitzinger , Making 81–107. Demus , Mosaics of S. Marco ...

Ravenna, Italy

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
150 words

..., Italy [Si] Ancient city of the Adriatic coast of northern Italy well known for its wealth and position in the late Roman and Byzantine world. In 402 ad the official royal residence of the western exarchate of the Byzantine Empire was moved from Milan to Ravenna, the city rising to great importance during the reign of Theodoric ( ad 498–526 ). During this time many new churches and public buildings were constructed, drawing on the architectural styles of the Middle East as well as traditional western Roman forms. Major buildings include the tomb of...

Rave'nna

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
144 words

... Ancient city of north-east Italy, to the south of the river Po, built in the manner of Venice on the lagoons which existed there at that time but now situated on dry land some distance from the sea. Augustus based the Roman Adriatic fleet there. After the Visigothic invasions of ad 401 and 403 made Milan, the former capital of Cisalpine Gaul, unsafe, Ravenna's strong and secluded location caused the emperor in the West, Honorius , son of Theodosius the Great , to move his court there from Rome. His successors for the most part followed his...

Ravenna papyri

Ravenna papyri   Reference library

Shane Bjornlie

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... papyri Collection of 59 documents, known by the abbreviation P. Ital., preserved in the ecclesiastical archive of Ravenna , dated 443/4–700/5. They pertain to a wide range of legal matters ( estate records, donations of property, wills , manumission ), making them valuable for the social, economic, and legal history of Italy . Tjäder’s edition is superior, although Gaetano Marini ( 1805 ) included documents later unavailable to Tjäder. Most of the P.Ital. originated at Ravenna, being drafted for private individuals or members of the clergy; only a...

Ravenna Papyri

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
205 words

... Papyri , a general designation for the Latin nonliterary archival material originating in the archiepiscopal chancery of Ravenna or sent there from other chanceries of Italy (Rome, Syracuse) in late antiquity. Since they were written in Latin and, unusually, on papyrus, they attracted the attention of early humanists and palaeographers. The documents' contents relate to church privileges and the management of ecclesiastical estates, wills, and donations benefiting churches and monasteries, and heritable leases and sales pertaining to the landed...

Ravenna, See of

Ravenna, See of   Reference library

Shane Bjornlie

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., See of The bishops of Ravenna gained particular authority through the increase of Ravenna’s importance as an imperial city. Agnellus in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis claimed that the Apostle Peter made S. Apollinaris the first Bishop of Ravenna, but the first firmly attested bishop is Severus, who attended the Council of Serdica in 343 . During the 5th century , with emperors residing in Ravenna, the Church enjoyed imperial benefaction. Peter Chrysologus (bp. 432–50 ) secured Ravenna’s metropolitan authority over the ...

Ravenna Rotulus, the

Ravenna Rotulus, the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
337 words

...in the Office, not in the Mass. On the back of the rotulus there are eight documents in a 10th-cent. minuscule hand. Prob. all these come from the metropolitan archives of Ravenna. The prayers have sometimes been attributed to St Peter Chrysologus ( d. 450 ), e.g. by F. Cabrol ; but on no sufficient evidence. They have also been ascribed (also improbably) to Marinianus, Bp. of Ravenna 595–?606 . Editio princeps by A. Ceriani and G. Porro , Il rotolo opistografo del Principe Antonio Pio de Savoia (Milan, 1883); conveniently in DACL 14 (pt. 2; 1948)...

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