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Raphael

(b Urbino, 28 Mar or 6 Apr. 1483; d Rome, 6 Apr. 1520). Italian painter, draughtsman, architect, and designer, the artist who most completely expresses the ideals of the High ...

History of Linguistics

History of Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
44,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Clark. Loewe, Raphael . 1994. Hebrew linguistics. In History of linguistics , vol. 1, edited by Giulio Lepschy , pp. 97–163. London and New York: Longman. Morag, S. 1962. The vocalization system of Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic . The Hague: Mouton. Ornan, U. 1971. Hebrew grammar. In Encyclopaedia Judaica , vol. 8, cols. 77–175. Jerusalem: Keter. Sans Badillos, A. 1993. A history of the Hebrew language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scholem, G. 1955. Major trends in Jewish mysticism . London: Thames and Hudson. Raphael Loewe Eastern...

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... , the archangel (Tobit 6:16)...

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25 words

... (Heb., ‘God is healing’). An angel recognized in Judaism and Christianity. Raphael appears in the Apocrypha ( Tobit 12. 15 and 1 Enoch 20....

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
42 words

... 1881: 207; Middx; SW Scotland. 1 German, Jewish (Ashkenazic): relationship name from Raphael , a name of one of the archangels in the Old Testament (Hebrew (modern form) Rāfāʾēl ‘it is God who heals’). 2 Scottish: see Raffles . 3 English: see Raffle...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
102 words

... ( 1483–1520 ) ( Raphael Sanzio or Raphael Santi ) Italian painter, one of the finest artists of the High Renaissance . Born in Urbino, Raphael absorbed humanism as a child. One of his most important commissions was the decoration of the four stanze (rooms) in the Vatican. He only completed two of these but the first, the Stanza della Segnatura , gave him the chance to exercise his skills to the full. The room contains two large frescos , the School of Athens and the Disputà , both of which show Raphael's mastery of perspective . After ...

Raphael

Raphael (1473–1520)   Reference library

Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
216 words

... (Raffaello Sanzio)   ( 1473–1520 ) Italian architect and painter . Raphael’s interest in the architecture of ancient Rome is shown by his painting ‘The School of Athens’, in the Stanza della Segnatura overlooking Bramante ’s Cortile de Belevedere, the Vatican. After Bramante’s death in 1514 , Pope Leo X promoted Raphael to take Bramante’s place as architect of St Peter’s, though none of his proposals were realized. His subsequent achievement as an architect is difficult to evaluate, as he relied heavily on Antonio da Sangallo the Younger for...

Raphael

Raphael   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
50 words

... An * archangel sent to cure Tobit of blindness (Tob. 11: 7–8) and to be the companion of Tobias, son of Tobit. The development of belief in angels (Tob. 12: 15) is a feature of literature of this period and Raphael is also mentioned in 1 Enoch (10:...

Raphael

Raphael (28 March)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
404 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ 1721–80 ] and Robert Adam in the 18th century). Maiolica painters also copied scenes from Raphael's paintings, so giving rise to the myth that Raphael was a maiolica painter . These wares are known as Raphael's ware or Raffaele ware. F. Ames-Lewis : Nicola da Urbino and Raphael , Burl. Mag. , cxxx (Sept 1988), pp. 690–92 S. Fermor : The Raphael Tapestry Cartoons: Narrative, Decoration, Design (London, 1996) S. Fermor and others: The Raphael Tapestry Cartoons Re-examined , Burl. Mag. , cxl/1141 (April 1998), pp. 236–50 T. P. Campbell : ...

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Religion
Length:
126 words

... . An archangel mentioned in the Bible only in the book of Tobit , in which he is sent to cure the blindness of Tobit and to free the hapless Sarah from the power of a demon; to accomplish these tasks he acts as the companion and protector of Tobit's son Tobias on his journey. Raphael's name means “God has healed”; this explains his curative activity in Tobit and in postbiblical Jewish literature, such as 1 Enoch, in which he is sent to remove Azazel and to heal the earth and is set over diseases and wounds. Later traditions identify Raphael as one of...

RAPHAEL

RAPHAEL   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
149 words

... , archangel. Unlike Michael , and Gabriel, Raphael is not mentioned in the bible, but he figures prominently in both the Apocrypha (e.g., Tb . 12.11) and in kabbalistic literature. Together, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel , and Raphael fulfill such functions as taking command of the four points of the camp of Israel and the four points of the compass, or standing to the right and left, above and below the heavenly choir, which sings the praises of God. More particularly, Raphael is the angel of healing ( rafa ’ [healed] and El [God]) and was therefore...

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... One of the principal angels of Jewish angelology. The Book of tobit tells how he travelled with Tobias into Media and back again, instructing him on the way how to marry Sara and to drive away the wicked spirit. Milton calls him the ‘sociable spirit’ and the ‘affable archangel’ ( Paradise Lost , vii ( 1667 )), and it was he who was sent by God to warn adam of his danger. Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deigned To travel with Tobias, and secured His marriage with the seven-times-wedded maid. Raphael is usually distinguished in art by a pilgrim’s...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)([Art])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
72 words

... ( Raffaello Sanzio ) [Art] ( 1483–1520 ), An Italian painter and architect of the Renaissance known especially for his *Madonnas , usually shown seated with a child on their knee and a beautifully serene expression. > Used to describe a woman of serene beauty The general effect of Margaret's expression was of rapt devotion like a Raphael Madonna, alternating with disdain for the third form ranged alongside her. Contemporary Review ...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
96 words

... ( Raffaello Sanzio ) ( 1483–1520 ) Italian painter , born in Urbino. Throughout the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries Raphael was generally revered as the greatest of all painters; his supremacy was challenged by the romantic admirers of Michelangelo in the 18th century but endorsed by the first president of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds . In the 19th century the High Renaissance tradition was powerfully attacked first by the young John Ruskin in Modern Painters then by the Pre-Raphaelites who idealistically romanticized the purity,...

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,546 words

..., when Raphael was only 11, and nothing is documented about his training. Presumably he did receive his first lessons in art from his father, and it has been suggested that he was subsequently a pupil of Timoteo Viti ( 1469–1523 ), a local painter, but the overwhelming influence on his early work was Perugino . Raphael took from him not only general qualities such as sweetness of expression and elegance of drawing, but also such characteristic details as daintily crooked little fingers and wispy background trees. According to Vasari, Raphael was...

Raphael

Raphael   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
136 words

... . An archangel mentioned in the Bible only in the book of Tobit , in which he is sent to cure the blindness of Tobit and to free the hapless Sarah from the power of a demon ( Tob. 3.17 ); to accomplish these tasks he acts as the companion and protector of Tobit's son Tobias on his journey. Raphael's name means “God has healed”; this explains his curative activity in Tobit and in postbiblical Jewish literature, such as 1 Enoch, in which he is sent to remove Azazel and to heal the earth (1 Enoch 10.5–7) and is set over diseases and wounds...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
61 words

... ( Raffaello Sanzio ) ( 1483–1520 ), from Urbino , became one of the most influential and celebrated painters of his time (and of the whole Renaissance ), working principally in Rome for Popes Julius II ( 1503–13 ) and Leo X ( 1513–21 ). His literary friends, many of whose portraits he painted, included Baldassarre Castiglione , Pietro Bembo , Andrea Navagero , and Agostino Beazzano . [ Clare Robertson...

Raphael

Raphael   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
48 words

... Biblical archangel who, with Michael , Gabriel, and Uriel, serves as a messenger of God. According to passages in the apocryphal Book of Tobit and the pseudigraphical Second Book of Enoch, he is one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints to...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64 words

... ( 1483–1520 ) ( Raffaello Sanzio ), the most famous of the Renaissance painters. In 1508 he was summoned to Rome to decorate the Vatican ‘Stanze’ and in 1514 appointed chief architect of St Peter 's. His works include the Espousals of the Virgin ( 1504 ; Brera, Milan), the Sistine Madonna , and the Madonna della Sedia ( c. 1513–14 ; Pitti,...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
573 words

...of the mysterious, of the Sistine Madonna ( MF 5.1) For many Victorian art lovers Raphael was the greatest of painters, often placed with *Shakespeare in a pantheon of immortals. George Eliot 's response to his work was more equivocal. In 1845 she declared her admiration for Raphael's St Catherine , recently purchased by the National Gallery, but, when her view of art began to be influenced by that of John *Ruskin , she became aware of his doubts about Raphael's true quality. That she did not blindly follow Ruskin, however, is evident from her...

Raphael

Raphael (1483–1520)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
125 words

... ( Raffaello Sanzio ) ( 1483–1520 ) Italian painter , born in Urbino . He worked in Perugino's studio and then in Florence, and succeeded Bramante as architect of St Peter's. Throughout the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries Raphael was generally revered as the greatest of all painters; his supremacy was challenged by the romantic admirers of Michelangelo in the 18th century but endorsed by the first president of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds . In the 19th century he continued to be revered by members of the Academy, but the High...

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