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Ali Abd al-Raziq

Subject: Religion

(d. 1966) Egyptian qadi, intellectual, and author. Born to a powerful and wealthy landowning family in Minya, Abd al-Raziq received both Western and traditional Islamic ...

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī (1888–1966)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

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Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
58 words

... al-Rāziq, ʿAlī ( 1888–1966 ). Egyptian writer and scholar whose Islām wa Usūl al-Hukm (Islam and the Principles of Government) caused a sensation in 1825 . Responding to the demise of the Ottoman Caliphate the previous year, he claimed that Islam had never been essentially political, that the Caliphate was dispensable, and that Islam was a purely spiritual...

Abd al-Raziq, Ali

Abd al-Raziq, Ali (1966)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
106 words

...Abd al-Raziq, Ali (d. 1966 ) Egyptian qadi, intellectual, and author. Born to a powerful and wealthy landowning family in Minya, Abd al-Raziq received both Western and traditional Islamic educations at Oxford and al-Azhar. In 1925 he published the highly controversial and influential Al-Islam wa-usul al-hukm ( Islam and the sources of political authority ), which argued against the idea of a specifically Islamic notion of government. Most contentious was his assertion that Muhammad 's role was that of a prophet and spiritual—not political—leader. His...

Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-

Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,499 words

...Liberal Age, 1798–1939 . London, 1962. Offers an excellent summary of the main arguments of al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm and its relationship to ʿAbduh and the Islamic reform movement in Egypt (pp. 183–192). Ḥusayn, Muḥammad al-Khiḍr . Naqd kitāb al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm . Cairo, n.d. One of the main critiques of ʿAbd al-Rāziq 's work by a contemporary. ʿImārah, Muḥammad . al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm li ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq . Beirut, 1972. Classic critique of ʿAbd al-Rāziq 's work that faults the author for a lack of understanding of Islamic history and for having...

ʿAbd al-Raziq, Ali

ʿAbd al-Raziq, Ali (1888)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,513 words

...a leader of the Liberal Constitutionalist Party, Charles D. Smith proposes that ʿAbd al-Raziq had a real but diffuse influence on the thinking of other Egyptian liberals including Haykal, Husayn, his brother Mustafa ʿAbd al-Raziq, and Mahmud Shaltut, who served as rector of Al-Azhar from 1958 until his death in 1963 . Shaltut had, in the 1920 s and 1930s, participated with Ali ʿAbd al-Raziq in vigorous criticism of Azhari ulama including al-Zawahiri. In 1947 ʿAbd al-Raziq published his second book on ijmaʿ (consensus) and its role in Islamic law. ...

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī (1888–1966)   Reference library

Laith Saud

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
827 words

... al-Rāziq, ʿAlī . ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ( 1888–1966 ), was a Azharī scholar , Egyptian qāḍī , and government minister . ʿAbd al-Rāziq's contribution to Islamic political thought is his most enduring, as well as ambiguous, legacy. In 1925 , his book al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm: Baḥth fī al-khilāfah wa al-ḥukumah fī al-Islām (Islam and the Foundations of Governance: A Study on the Caliphate and Government in Islam) was published. The main thesis of the book was responded to with indignation by major figures of the religious establishment, while it...

Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-

Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-  

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ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq (1888–1966)was an Egyptian sharīʿah (Islamic law) judge, controversial intellectual, and author of al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm: Baḥth fī al-khilāfah wa al-ḥukūmah fī al-Islām (Islam ...
Ali Abd al-Raziq

Ali Abd al-Raziq  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(d. 1966)Egyptian qadi, intellectual, and author. Born to a powerful and wealthy landowning family in Minya, Abd al-Raziq received both Western and traditional Islamic educations at Oxford and ...
Ḥukūmah

Ḥukūmah  

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Government, commonly distinguished from dawlah (state). Understood as the group of individuals who exercise the authority of the state; the term was adopted as Muslims became increasingly interested ...
Hukumah

Hukumah   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
165 words

...with legal identity; government was legitimate because God and divine law authorized it. In the modern period, the word connotes administration, political authority, and rule. Ali Abd al-Raziq (d. 1966 ) argued that Islam mandates no particular form of government. Muhammad Rashid Rida (d. 1935 ) stated that the caliphate was a spiritual institution, not a legal one. Abu al-Ala Mawdudi (d. 1979 ) held there is no essential difference between state, society, and government: all are part of the larger Islamic order anchored in shariah. Ayatollah...

Fahmi, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz

Fahmi, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz (1870)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
662 words

...the enmity of both the king and the Wafd), ʿAbd al-ʿAziz Fahmi was nonetheless a believer in and champion of parliamentary government and a liberal order in Egypt. [ See also ʿAbd al-Raziq, Ali ; Fuʾad I, Ahmad ; Zaghlul, Saʿd ; Ziwar, Ahmad .] bibliography Deeb, Marius . Party Politics in Egypt: The Wafd and Its Rivals, 1919–1939 . London: Ithaca Press for the Middle East Centre, St. Antony’s College, Oxford, 1979. A detailed history of the politics of the interwar period. Goldschmidt, Arthur Jr . “ ʿAbd al-ʿAziz Fahmi.” In Biographical Dictionary of...

Islamic Reform

Islamic Reform   Reference library

Ahmad Moussalli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,755 words

...), Shiblī Shumayyil, ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Kawākibī, ʿAbd Allāh al-Nadīm, Muṣṭafā Kāmil, and Salāmah Mūsā. Other Muslim reformers, including Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī ( 1837–1897 ) and Muḥammad ʿAbduh ( 1849–1905 ), were influenced by his thinking and the ideals of the French Revolution. Followers of ʿAbduh, such as Aḥmad Luṭfī al-Sayyid, Qāsim Amīn, Ahmd Fathi Zaghlūl, and Saʿd Zaghlūl, formed a liberal wing in the Arab world. The same applies to the grand shaykh of Al-Azhar, Muṣṭafā ʿAbd al-Rāziq, and his brother, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq, as well as Aḥmad Amīn and...

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al- (1895–1971)   Reference library

Emad El-Din Shahin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,147 words

...(RCC) exercise of power. Following a falling out among RCC members, al-Sanhūrī was ousted from the Council of State in 1954 and was later deprived of his political rights. He devoted the rest of his life to teaching, research, and writing. Sanhūrī articulated his theoretical approach of legal reform in Le califat: Son évolution vers une société des nations orientales (Paris, 1926 ). Unlike ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq, who claimed that political authority was not an integral part of Islam, al-Sanhūrī considered the restoration of the Caliphate a necessity,...

Haykal, Muhammad Husayn

Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1888)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,852 words

...of books by his friends ʿAli ʿAbd al-Raziq and Taha Husayn in 1925 and 1926 , respectively. Al-Raziq’s al-Islam wa Usul al-Hukm (Islam and the Principles of Government) argued that Islam was purely a religion and contained no political principles. It maintained that the caliphate, recently abolished in Turkey, had been merely a monarchy and that religion should be solely a matter of personal faith; religious officials and institutions should be subsumed within a secular ministry of education. The resulting furor saw al-Raziq removed from his post as a...

Sanhuri, ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al-

Sanhuri, ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al- (1895)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,951 words

... ʿAbd al-Raziq, ʿAli ; ʿAbduh, Muhammad ; Afghani, Jamal al-Din Muhammad al- ; Amin, Qasim Muhammad ; Nasser, Gamal Abd al- ; Nuqrashi, Mahmud Fahmi al- ; and Wajdi, Muhammad Farid . ] bibliography ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al-Sanhuri . Articles et récherches par Prof. Abd El-Razzak Al-Sanhowry/Maqalat wa abhath al-ustadh al-duktur ʿabd al-razzaq al-sanhuri. Revue Al-Qanoun Wa’l-Iqtisad: Édition Spéciale . 2 vols. Al-Qahirah, Egypt: Matbaʿat jamiʿat al-azhar, 1990. ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al-Sanhuri , Nadiyyah Al-Sanhuri , and Tawfiq al-Shawi . Al...

Khālid, Khālid Muḥammad

Khālid, Khālid Muḥammad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and magazines, such as Al-sharq al-awsaṭ (London), Al-muslimūn, Al-musawwar, Al-ahrām , and Al-wafd. His first book, Min hunā nabdaʿ ( From Here We Begin , 1950 ), was confiscated because of objections from al-Azhar and then released by order of the Cairo district court. In this book he mounted a forceful attack on “priesthood,” clearly having al-Azhar or at least its conservative elements in view, and called for separation of religion and state, using arguments reminiscent of those made in the 1920s by ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq . He also called for a...

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,095 words

... and was later deprived of his political rights. He devoted the rest of his life to teaching, research, and writing. Sanhūrī articulated his theoretical approach of legal reform in Le Califat: Son évolution vers une société des nations orientale (Paris, 1926 ). Unlike ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq , who claimed that political authority was not an integral part of Islam, Sanhūrī considered the restoration of the caliphate a necessity, signifying the unity of Muslims and the preservation of the law. To reflect prevailing conditions, he made a distinction between an...

Dawlah

Dawlah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,089 words

... Shaykh ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq ( d. 1966 ), a former Rector of al-Azhar, the Islamic world 's most famous university and mosque. In 1925 , he published a book entitled al-Islam wa Usūl al-Ḥukm (Islam and the Foundations of Rule). ʿAbd al-Rāziq scandalized the religious scholars by explicitly rejecting the thesis that Islam was both religion and state. Indeed, he went as far as to say that an Islamic order does not require a caliph ruling on the basis of the sharī ʿah . Contemporary Interpretations. Islamic liberals today, the legatees of ʿAbd al-Rāziq,...

Authority and Legitimation

Authority and Legitimation   Reference library

Bassam Tibi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,439 words

...and on al-Farabi's concept of a truly Islamic madīnah fāḍilah , a proper polity in which the authority of the rulers is legitimized by a combination of free elections and the political culture of democracy. [ See also ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī ; Caliphate, Theories of the ; Dawlah ; Ibn Taymīyah, Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad ; Imamate, Theories of the ; Kawākibī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al- ; Khālid, Khālid Muḥammad ; Quṭb, Sayyid ; Rashīd Riḍā, Muḥammad ; Ummah ; and Wilāyat al-Faqīh . ] Bibliography ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī . al-Islam wa usul al-hikm [Islam...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,930 words
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...Egypt, and al-Azhar has condemned Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses and works by outspoken secularist Saʿīd ʿAshmāwī. Not a few Azharīs privately agree with Shaykh ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Kishk , the blind Azharī graduate whose radical, populist sermons drew an enthusiastic Islamist following in the 1970s and 1980s. Kishk chided his alma mater for accepting Western-educated shaykhs al-Azhar, demanded elections to fill that office, and called for the elimination of the colleges added since 1961 see ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī ; Ḥusayn, Ṭāhā ; and Kishk, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd . For...

Political Science

Political Science   Reference library

Abdul Rashid Moten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,824 words

...along with a life lived in worship and in seeking the pleasure of the One and only Allāh. ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq, according to Rosenthal ( 1968 , p. 100), was “obviously unaware of the political treatise of al-Fārābī ... and of others,” those who conceived of good life in both temporal and spiritual terms. Along with the definition of political science, much has also been written on methods of research to produce pertinent political theories. Sayyid Abū al-Aʿlā Mawdūdī ( d. 1979 ), Sayyid Quṭb ( d. 1966 ), and other twentieth-century scholars have...

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