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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

(PRB) The name adopted in 1848 by a group of young English artists who shared a dismay at what they considered the moribund state of British painting and hoped to recapture the ...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
94 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood ( PRB ) Name adopted in 1848 by a group of young English painters who joined forces to revitalize British art. The most prominent members of the PRB were Dante Gabriel Rossetti , John Everett Millais , and William Holman Hunt . They attracted fierce criticism for their rejection of Raphael but were helped by the support of John Ruskin . By 1853 the PRB had largely dissolved but Rossetti maintained the name, and under his influence a second wave of Pre-Raphaelite painting began in the 1860s, which lasted well into the 20th...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
293 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood A group of English painters, founded in 1848 , who took as their inspiration Italian art which predated the Renaissance , i.e. ‘before Raphael’. They admired the simplicity and sincerity of Quattrocento art, which they came to know through prints such as the line engravings made by Lasinio after the frescoes in the Campo Santo at Pisa. Conversely, they detested much academic art, which they found heavy and debased, and despised contemporary genre painting with its trivial anecdotage. The founding members of the group were John...

Pre‐Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre‐Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
351 words

...‐Raphaelite Brotherhood A group of artists, poets, and critics— John Everett Millais , Dante Gabriel Rossetti , William Holman Hunt , William Michael Rossetti , Thomas Woolner , Frederic George Stephens ( 1828–1907 ), and James Collinson ( 1825–81 )—who first met as a group, led by the first three, in 1848 . Various derivations have been assigned to the term ‘PreRaphaelite’, which indicated the group's admiration for the Italian quattrocento and its defiance of the authority both of Raphael as a master and of 19th‐century academic painting. The...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

Malcolm Andrews

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
341 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood . The initials ‘PRB’, for Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, first appeared on a number of paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1848 . The title was adopted by a group of young British artists who wished to revive the freedom from academic rules and conventions which they associated with pre-Renaissance painters. They were not antagonistic to Raphael, but to ‘Raphaelitism’: that is, they objected to the hackneyed, mannered work of disciples and later followers of Raphael. The Brotherhood in its earliest years consisted of William...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
877 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood ( PRB ) . The name adopted in 1848 by a group of young English artists who shared a dismay at what they considered the moribund state of British painting and hoped to recapture the sincerity and simplicity of early Italian art (i.e. before the time of Raphael , whom they saw as the fountainhead of academism). The nucleus of the group was formed by three fellow students at the Royal Academy —William Holman Hunt , John Everett Millais , and Dante Gabriel Rossetti (to whom, son of an Italian ex-revolutionary, the sealing of the...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
721 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood ( PRB ) The name adopted in 1848 by a group of young English artists who shared a dismay at what they considered the moribund state of British painting and hoped to recapture the sincerity and simplicity of early Italian art (i.e. before the time of Raphael , whom they saw as the fountainhead of academism). The nucleus of the group was formed by three fellow students at the Royal Academy —John Everett Millais , William Holman Hunt , and Dante Gabriel Rossetti (to whom, son of an Italian ex-revolutionary, the sealing of the group...

Pre‐Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre‐Raphaelite Brotherhood   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
273 words

...‐Raphaelite Brotherhood A group of artists, poets, and critics— John Everett Millais , Dante Gabriel Rossetti , William Holman Hunt , William Michael Rossetti , Thomas Woolner , Frederic George Stephens ( 1828–1907 ), and James Collinson ( 1825–81 )—who first met as a group, led by the first three, in 1848 . The initials ‘P.R.B.’ first appeared on their work in the Royal Academy exhibition of 1849 . As its periodical The Germ ( 1850 ) suggests, the movement was strongly literary, and some of its most striking paintings were inspired by John Keats ...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
640 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood A movement founded in 1848 by James Collinson ( 1825–81 ), William Holman Hunt , John Everett Millais , Thomas Woolner ( 1825–92 ), and two brothers, Dante Gabriel ( 1828–82 ) and William Michael ( 1829–1919 ) Rossetti . The key figures were Hunt, Millais, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, all students at the Royal Academy. Dissatisfied with the state of contemporary painting, they sought inspiration elsewhere, and particularly in the work of Ford Madox Brown ( 1821–93 ), a little-regarded artist who had come under the influence of the...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

E. K. Helsinger

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...poetics , painting and poetry , pre-raphaelitism . Bibliography J. Ruskin , Pre-Raphaelitism (1851), and “Letters on the Pre-Raphaelite Artists” (1851, 1854), Works of J. Ruskin , ed. E. T. Cook and A. Wedderburn , v. 12 (1904) ; W. H. Hunt , Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood , 2 v. (1905–6) ; A. Staley , The Pre-Raphaelite Landscape (1973) ; Pre-Raphaelitism , ed. J. Sambrook (1974) ; W. M. Rossetti , The P.-R.-B. Journal , ed. W. E. Fredeman (1975) ; Tate Gallery , The Pre-Raphaelites , exhibition catalog (1984) ; J....

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

Kate Newman

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
203 words
Illustration(s):
1

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood , a society formed in 1848 by the English artists William Holman Hunt , John Everett Millais , and Dante Gabriel Rossetti , with four friends. The Pre-Raphaelites identified in Shakespeare an ideal they could harness to their attempt to revitalize British art with noble ideas and fidelity to nature: in 1848 Rossetti and Hunt prepared ‘a list of Immortals, forming our creed’, wherein the ‘first class’ comprised Jesus and Shakespeare. Hunt chose episodes dramatizing moral conflict in Valentine Rescuing Sylvia from Proteus ( 1851...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
716 words

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood . Founded in 1848 by a group of young artists and writers, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was the most forward-looking body in British art in the earlier part of George Eliot 's career. Championed by John *Ruskin in 1851 for their pursuit of truth and accuracy in their painting, the Pre-Raphaelite painters had an immediate appeal for George Eliot. In 1852 she expressed regret that no one on the staff of the * Westminster Review was able to write a general article on the literature and art of the group and, in a review of...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, The

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood, The A group of artists formed in London in 1848 consisting of William Holman Hunt , John Everett Millais , Dante Gabriel Rossetti and the sculptor Thomas Woolner . It was later joined by James Collinson , Walter Howell Deverell , Frederick Stephens and William Michael Rossetti . Ford Madox Brown and John Ruskin supported their movement, which espoused a closer study of nature than was practised by those tied to academical rules, and the study of the method and spirit of the artists before (‘pre’) Raphael ( 1483–1520...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...-Raphaelite Brotherhood A group of artists formed in London in 1848 consisting of William Holman Hunt , John Everett Millais , Dante Gabriel Rossetti and the sculptor Thomas Woolner . It was later joined by James Collinson , Walter Howell Deverell , Frederick Stephens and William Michael Rossetti . Ford Madox Brown and John Ruskin supported their movement, which espoused a closer study of nature than was practised by those tied to academical rules, and the study of the method and spirit of the artists before (‘pre’) Raphael ( 1483–1520 ). Hence...

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(PRB)The name adopted in 1848 by a group of young English artists who shared a dismay at what they considered the moribund state of British painting and hoped to recapture the sincerity and ...
16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

..., 1844 ), which was notable for a consciously Teutonic layout—where the designs often encircle the text or run in panels next to it—and was the sole work with illustrations by the uniquely disturbing Richard Dadd. The year 1848 saw the foundation in London of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and although the movement itself was short-lived, its influence on illustration was momentous. In 1855 , *Routledge published The Music Master by the Irish poet William Allingham , with wood engravings after John Millais , Dante Gabriel Rossetti , and Arthur...

Richard II

Richard II   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...critics, who found it merely laboured and archaic, but the Romantics, particularly Coleridge , were more in sympathy with its depiction of the eloquently helpless Richard. It appealed even more strongly to their 19th-century successors among the nostalgic Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the aesthetic movement, such as Walter Pater , and in a famous essay (‘At Stratford upon Avon’, 1901 ) Yeats wrote of his conviction that as a true poet Shakespeare of course preferred Richard II to the merely efficient Henry V. Modern criticism has explored...

Elizabeth Hand

Elizabeth Hand  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1957– )American writer, born in San Diego. Winterlong (1990) began a science fiction sequence whose baroque elements were succeeded by darker concerns, such as artistic obsession in the ...
Pre-Raphaelitism, American

Pre-Raphaelitism, American  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Term designating a tendency inspired by the painters of the British Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, who admired the simplicity and purity they perceived in work of early Renaissance artists preceding ...
James Collinson

James Collinson  

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Overview Page
(b Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, 9 May 1825; d London, 24 Jan. 1881).English painter. He was one of the original members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB) in 1848, but he left it in 1850 because ...
Ruralists

Ruralists  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A group of British artists, whose full name was the Brotherhood of English Ruralists, founded in 1975 by the former Pop artist Peter Blake after his move from London to the countryside near Bath. ...

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