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Polycrates

Tyrant (see tyranny) of Samos, seized power c.535 bc, with his brothers, but soon made himself tyrant. Almost unrivalled in magnificence, he made Samos a great naval power (see navies; sea ...

Polycrates

Polycrates (2nd cent.)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
103 words

...Polycrates ( 2nd cent. ) , Bp. of Ephesus . He was the leading Quartodeciman of Asia who, after convening a synod c. 190 , sturdily opposed Pope Victor in his attempts to secure that the feast of Easter should be uniformly celebrated on a Sunday. In consequence, Victor withdrew from communion with Polycrates. The incident, which is all that is known of Polycrates, is an important illustration of the early claims of the Roman see. Extracts from Polycrates' letter are preserved in Eusebius , HE 5. 24. 2–8 and 3. 31. 3. E. Peterson in EC 9 (1952)...

Polycrates

Polycrates (2nd cent.)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35 words

... ( 2nd cent. ), Bp. of Ephesus . He was the leading Quartodeciman who opposed Pope Victor in his attempts to secure that Easter should be uniformly celebrated on a...

Polycrates

Polycrates (2) (c.440–370 bc)   Reference library

Donald Andrew Frank Moore Russell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
161 words

... (2) ( c. 440–370 bc ) was an Athenian sophist who spent his latter years in Cyprus, and is best known for his (lost) fictitious ‘Accusation of Socrates ’ (κατηγορία Σωκράτους), written after 393 / 2 bc , and put in the mouth of Anytus . The defences of Socrates by Plato (1) and Xenophon (1) seem to be responses to Polycrates. His speech was known to Libanius , who composed an elaborate ‘defence’ partly at least in reply to it. Polycrates also practised the genre of ‘paradoxical encomia’; his encomium on Busiris roused Isocrates to...

Polycrates

Polycrates ([People])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
75 words

... [People] The ruler of Samos, known for being extraordinarily lucky. So much luck put him in danger of retribution from *Nemesis , and in order to appease her he threw away a very valuable ring. The ring was subsequently found in the belly of a fish which a fisherman had presented to Polycrates. He was killed in c. 522 bc . > Someone who is extremely lucky; someone who ultimately suffers when their luck runs...

Polycrates

Polycrates   Quick reference

Rosalind Thomas

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
246 words

... , tyrant of Samos, son of Aeaces , seized power c. 535 bc , with his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson, but soon made himself tyrant. Almost unrivalled in magnificence (Hdt. 3. 125, 122), he made Samos a great naval power, subjected neighbouring islands (Hdt. 3. 39, 122; Thuc. 1. 13), including Rheneia near Delos which he dedicated to Apollo (Thuc. 1. 13; 3. 104). He formed a defensive alliance with Amasis, king of Egypt, but seems to have broken it off deliberately (contrast the moralizing tale of Polycrates' ring in Hdt. 3. 39 ff.) when the Persian...

Polycratēs

Polycratēs   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
62 words

... 2 ( c. 440–370 bc ) was an Athenian sophist best known for his (lost) fictitious ‘Accusation of Socrates ’, written after 393/2 bc , and put in the mouth of Anytus . It may have stimulated Plato and Xenophon to write in Socrates' defence. The speech was known to Libanius , who composed an elaborate ‘defence’ partly at least in reply to...

Polycratēs

Polycratēs   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
199 words

... 1, tyrant ( see tyranny ) of Samos , seized power c. 535 bc , with his brothers, but soon made himself tyrant. Almost unrivalled in magnificence, he made Samos a great naval power ( see navies ; sea power ), and subjected neighbouring islands, including Rheneia near Delos , which he dedicated to Apollo . He formed a defensive alliance with Amasis ( see saïtes ), but seems to have broken it off deliberately (contrast the moralizing tale of Polycrates' ring) when Cambyses tried to acquire Egypt, and supplied him with 40 Samian ships. The...

Polycrates

Polycrates (1)   Reference library

Rosalind Thomas

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
311 words

...tale of Polycrates' ring in Hdt. 3. 39 ff.) when Cambyses tried to acquire Egypt, and supplied Samian ships. The Samians mutinied and went over to Sparta; Sparta and Corinth , apparently to prevent Polycrates medizing, tried to overthrow him, unsuccessfully ( 525 bc ). He was lured to the mainland, c. 522 , by the satrap Oroetes, who pretended to be plotting against Darius I , and was crucified. He pursued a piratical and opportunist thalassocracy (see Hdt. 3. 39 for piracy ), upset by the gradual extension of Persian power, which he tried to court....

Poly'cratēs

Poly'cratēs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
181 words

...Herodotus relates that Amasis II, king of Egypt, alarmed by the constant good fortune of Polycrates, sent him a letter advising him to throw away something that he valued highly so as to avert the jealousy of the gods. Polycrates accordingly threw into the sea a beautiful seal-ring, his most prized possession, but a few days later the ring was returned to him in the belly of a fish which a fisherman had presented to him. Amasis, concluding that Polycrates was marked down for destruction, renounced his...

Polycrates

Polycrates  

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Subject:
Religion
(2nd cent.), Bp. of Ephesus. He was the leading Quartodeciman who opposed Pope Victor in his attempts to secure that Easter should be uniformly celebrated on a Sunday.
Polycrates

Polycrates  

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Tyrant (see tyranny) of Samos, seized power c.535 bc, with his brothers, but soon made himself tyrant. Almost unrivalled in magnificence, he made Samos a great naval power (see navies; sea power), ...
Polycrates

Polycrates  

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(c.440–370 bc)was an Athenian sophist best known for his (lost) fictitious ‘Accusation of Socrates’, written after 393/2 bc, and put in the mouth of Anytus. It may have stimulated Plato and Xenophon ...
Dēmocēdēs

Dēmocēdēs  

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Of Croton in southern Italy (6th cent. bc), one of the most famous doctors (see medicine) of his time, and origin of Croton's medical reputation, practised in Aegina, Athens, and then for Polycrates ...
Zoïlus

Zoïlus  

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(Ζωΐλος) of Amphipolis (4th cent. bc), the Cynic philosopher, pupil of Polycrates (2) and teacher of Anaximenes (2) of Lampsacus; is described by the Suda as ῥήτωρ καὶ φιλόσοφος (rhetorician ...
Arcesilas I, II, III, IV

Arcesilas I, II, III, IV  

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Second, fourth, sixth, and eighth kings of the Battiads, who ruled Cyrene from its foundation (c.630 bc) for some 200 years. Information on their reigns comes almost entirely from Herodotus ...
Ibycus

Ibycus  

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6th-cent. bclyric poet, native of Rhegium in southern Italy. His date is controversial. The Suidas states that he went to Samos in Olympian Odes 54 (564–560 bc), while Eusebius ...
Samos

Samos  

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An important polis on the large Aegean island of the same name (476 sq. km./184 sq. mi.), 1.8 km. (1 mi.) from Asia Minor. Though west and central Samos are each dominated by a mountain, Samos has ...
Theodōrus

Theodōrus  

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Samian architect (see samos), sculptor, and metalworker, active c.550–520 bc. He made a massive silver mixing‐bowl dedicated by Croesus at Delphi, Polycrates' (1) famous ring, and a golden vine ...
St Victor I

St Victor I  

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Subject:
Religion
(d. 198), Pope from 189. In order to settle the Quartodeciman controversy, he ordered synods to be held throughout Christendom. He threatened Polycrates of Ephesus and other bishops of Asia Minor ...
Quartodecimanism

Quartodecimanism  

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Subject:
Religion
The custom of observing Easter on the 14th day of Nisan (the day of the Jewish Passover), whatever the day of the week. The tradition was rooted in Asia Minor. When St Polycarp, Bp. of Smyrna, ...

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