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Pollyanna effect

A tendency for people to pay more attention in their thought and speech to positive than negative aspects of their conceptual worlds and to process positive information more easily than ...

Pollyanna effect

Pollyanna effect   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
24 words

... effect ( Pollyanna hypothesis ) The tendency to accept and recall pleasant, positive information more easily than that which is unpleasant or...

Pollyanna effect

Pollyanna effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... effect n . A tendency for people to pay more attention in their thought and speech to positive than negative aspects of their conceptual worlds and to process positive information more easily than negative information. The term was coined in 1964 by the US psychologist Charles E(gerton) Osgood ( 1916–91 ) to explain the greater frequency of positive than negative words in written language: good occurs almost 10 times as frequently as bad , love almost 10 times as frequently as hate , and so on. See also mere exposure effect , trait...

Pollyanna effect

Pollyanna effect  

A tendency for people to pay more attention in their thought and speech to positive than negative aspects of their conceptual worlds and to process positive information more easily than negative ...
trait negativity bias

trait negativity bias  

A tendency for unfavourable information about a person to have more impact on impressions of that person than favourable information, so that, for example, even a single unfavourable comment in an ...
mere exposure effect

mere exposure effect  

The tendency for repeated exposure to a stimulus to be sufficient to enhance an observer's liking for it or attitude towards it. The effect was first referred to by the German philosopher, physician, ...
trait negativity bias

trait negativity bias n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in an otherwise supportive reference or testimonial may create a generally bad impression and undermine the candidate’s chances. The effect presumably arises from the fact that information about people tends to be mostly positive or neutral, as a result of which negative information tends to have more salience ( 1 ) and to contain more information ( 2 ) in the sense of information theory. See also Pollyanna effect...

mere exposure effect

mere exposure effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...different numbers of times, and they then guessed the degree of favourability of the meanings of these items. The results showed almost linear relationships between (log transformed) exposure frequency and rated favourability. See also Pollyanna effect , preference-feedback hypothesis . Compare name–letter effect...

Television and Children

Television and Children   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,260 words

...), Alan Garner ( The Owl Service , Elidor ), Pat Hutchins ( Titch ), Paul Jennings ( Round the Twist ), L. M. Montgomery ( Anne of Green Gables ), E. Nesbit ( The Treasure Seekers , The Five Children and It ), Mary Norton ( The Borrowers ), Eleanor H. Porter ( Pollyanna ), Beatrix Potter ( Peter Rabbit ), Terry Prachett ( Wyrd Sisters ), R. L. Stine ( Goosebumps series), Mark Twain ( The Prince and the Pauper ), and Laura Ingalls Wilder ( Little House on the Prairie ). The quality and length of these productions can vary enormously,...

girls’ stories

girls’ stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,125 words

...and a few decades later there was a fashion for stories about bright, energetic, jolly girls with a passion for setting the world to rights. Kate Douglas Wiggin’s Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm ( 1903 ), Jean Webster’s Daddy Long-Legs ( 1912 ), and Eleanor Hodgman Porter’s Pollyanna ( 1913 ) were among the most popular of these. Gene Stratton Porter’s A Girl of the Limberlost ( 1909 ) and Eleanor Gates’s Poor Little Rich Girl ( 1912 ) were two other American successes from this period. Australia began to produce some striking girls’ books at about...

Pollution

Pollution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...local scales, regulation of pollution very much depends on political will and the recognition that pollution control is as essential as economic development. The Pollyanna–Cassandra debate focuses on whether continuing expansion of the global economy and consumerism is possible (Pollyanna) or whether the whole structure will come apart in an economic and environmental calamity (Cassandra). If Pollyanna continues uncontrolled, a continuing negative impact on the environment through increased pollution is inevitable. With a proper balance between economic...

Bradbury, Malcolm

Bradbury, Malcolm   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,049 words

...amiable guide to a remarkably broad range of contemporary writing. Admittedly, his liberal humanist's embrace of pluralism, and his inability to say anything negative about any writer, often led to broad generalizations and at least the appearance of a maddening, at times Pollyanna-ish lack of discrimination. These, however, were risks he was quite willing to run in order to further the cause of keeping serious fiction alive and accessible, in spite of the forces arrayed against it. Rather than turn away from the postmodern crises of representation,...

Ecclesiastical Geography of Colonial Brazil

Ecclesiastical Geography of Colonial Brazil   Reference library

Evergton Sales Souza

Oxford Encyclopedia of Brazilian History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
History
Length:
8,453 words

...a vigência das Constituições Primeiras do Arcebispado da Bahia (São Paulo, Brazil: Editora Unifesp, 2011). 50. Pollyanna G. Mendonça Muniz, “Parochos imperfeitos: Justiça Eclesiástica e desvios do clero no Maranhão setecentista” (PhD diss., Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2011); Aldair C. Rodrigues, Igreja e inquisição no Brasil: agentes, carreiras e mecanismos de promoção social, século XVIII (São Paulo, Brazil: Alameda, 2014); Pollyanna G. Mendonça Muniz, Parochos imperfeitos: Justiça Eclesiástica e desvios do clero no Maranhão setecentista (PhD...

United States

United States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,286 words
Illustration(s):
2

...), set in Massachusetts's Berkshire Hills and telling the story of a charismatic orphan sent to live with a granite-hewn aunt, was the seed from which much subsequent girly romance grew— Kate Douglas Wiggin 's Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm ( 1903 ) and Eleanor H. Porter 's Pollyanna ( 1913 ) among them. Another Sedgwick orphan, Ellen, of Redwood ( 1824 ), was the prototype of the Ellen in Susan Warner 's The Wide, Wide World ( 1850 ). Foreign commentators had long marveled at the vast American consumption of newspapers, and by 1829 the New York ...

Work and Labor Movements in Latin America

Work and Labor Movements in Latin America   Reference library

Omar Manky Bonilla

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,618 words

...neo: Um olhar a partir da indústria do call center. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais (103), 25–52. Braga, Ruy . (2018). The politics of the precariat: From populism to lulista hegemony . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Burawoy, Michael . (2010). From Polanyi to Pollyanna: The false optimism of global labor studies. Global Labour Journal , 1 (2), 301–313. Burgess, Katrina . (2004). Parties and unions in the new global economy . Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Cameron, Maxwell A. (1991). Political parties and the worker-employer...

Foreign Policy and the Social Construction of State Identity

Foreign Policy and the Social Construction of State Identity   Reference library

Paul A. Kowert

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,302 words
Illustration(s):
1

...states) were nevertheless likely to make of anarchy much the sort of world that realists expect them to make: a self-regarding and highly competitive world in which power politics takes precedence. Nor was Mercer alone. Although constructivists are sometimes accused of being Pollyannas ( Mearsheimer 1994 /95), they have probably devoted more effort, on balance, to exploring the psychological foundations of uncooperative state identities than cooperative ones. Several early constructivist efforts applied SIT to topics such as accounting for liberal state bias...

Literature in English

Literature in English: 731 - 2000  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Literature

...finds her major theme, life on the frontier Cather, Willa (1873–1947) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s 20th century Literature American literature Fiction North America United States 1913 1913 In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier Porter, Eleanor Hodgman (1868–1920) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s 20th century Literature American literature Fiction North America United States 1913 1913 The first issue of the New...

Literature

Literature: c. 2500 BCE - 2000  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Literature

...major theme, life on the frontier Cather, Willa (1873–1947) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s 20th century American literature Literature in English Fiction North America United States 1913 1913 In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier Porter, Eleanor Hodgman (1868–1920) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s 20th century American literature Literature in English Fiction North America United States 1913 1913 The first issue of...

North America

North America: c. 30,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...radio a regular time signal, much used by the nation's watchmakers and menders. Naval Observatory The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military 1 1910s 20th century Technology Communication United States 1913 1913 In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier Porter, Eleanor Hodgman (1868–1920) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s 20th century Literature American literature Literature in English Fiction United States 1913 1913 The Woolworth Building...

United States

United States: c. 30,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...radio a regular time signal, much used by the nation's watchmakers and menders. Naval Observatory The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military 1 1910s 20th century Technology Communication North America 1913 1913 In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier Porter, Eleanor Hodgman (1868–1920) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s 20th century Literature American literature Literature in English Fiction North America 1913 1913 The Woolworth Building...

20th century

20th century: 1900 - 1999  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...a regular time signal, much used by the nation's watchmakers and menders. Naval Observatory The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military 1 1910s Technology Communication North America United States 1913 1913 In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier Porter, Eleanor Hodgman (1868–1920) The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature 1 1910s Literature American literature Literature in English Fiction North America United States 1913 1913 Dinizulu's son...

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