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Poland

Subject: History

Poland has been economically one of the most successful countries in Eastern Europe, but politically very volatile Poland has swamps and sand dunes along its northern coast. But ...

Poland

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Poland Physical map Political map Warsaw Central Warsaw Central Warsaw...

Poland

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
21 words

... . Ceramics see Baranówka Porcelain Factory ; Bunzlau ; Cadinen Pottery ; Glinitz Pottery ; Proskau Pottery ; Warsaw . Glass see Naliboki GlassWorks . Textiles see Buczacz...

Poland

Poland (Kiritimati, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Poland ( Polska ) , and Kiritimati, USA The Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska) since 1989 . Previously the People’s Republic of Poland ( 1947–89 ); Second Polish Republic ( 1918–39 , although it is argued that the presence of a Polish government-in-exile in the UK in 1940–5 continued its existence); Congress Kingdom of Poland (known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland) ( 1815–64 ) within the Russian Empire; the Russian sector of Poland was thereafter called the Western Region of the Russian Empire; Kingdom of Poland ( 1024–1795 ),...

Poland

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Poland's flag was adopted in 1919. Its colours date back to the red banner with white eagle of Vladislav Jagiello at the Battle of Tannenberg (1410). In 1831, the Sejm (Polish assembly) adopted white and red as national colours in the rising against Russian...

Poland

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
427 words

... or (Polish) Polska . . Medieval and early modern Poland was a vast country which included much of what is now Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic states; it did not, however, include Silesia , which became independent of Poland in 1301 and thereafter became predominantly German. In 1386 Grand Duke Jagiełło of Lithuania married Jadwiga, queen of Poland , whereupon he assumed the throne of Poland as King Vladislav Jagiełło II. The marriage created a dynastic link between Lithuania and Poland, and also established on the Polish throne the Lithuanian...

Poland

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,850 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Shipyards in Gdańsk, Poland, June 1983. Photograph by Langevin. AP Images Poland's internal divisions added to the interwar state's external vulnerability to German and Soviet aggression. Following the September 1939 invasions, Poland was partitioned along demarcation lines partially conceived in a secret protocol to the Nazi-Soviet pact of nonaggression signed a month earlier. The incorporation of eastern Poland into the Soviet Union was accompanied by the decimation of former elites and mass deportations. Western and northern Poland were incorporated into...

Poland

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
798 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Prussia and Russia partitioned Poland. The defeat of a Polish revolt in 1795 led to further partition, and Poland ceased to exist. The Congress of Vienna ( 1814-15 ) established a small, semi-independent Polish state based on Kraków. Polish uprisings in 1848 and 1863 against Russian dominance led to more impositions. In World War 1 Poland initially fought with Germany against Russia, but Germany later occupied Poland. Poland regained its independence in 1918 and, in 1920 , recaptured Warsaw from Russia. In 1921 , Poland became a republic. The 1920s...

Poland

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Magdalena Kowalczyk

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Poland , a country in central Europe, is the sixth-largest cheese producer in the world according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Poland’s important role as a cheese producer is possibly due to the diversity of its agricultural structure, which is based on small, family farms as well as on large, highly specialized farms. Cattle breeding is mostly concentrated in the Podlasie, Masovia, Masuria, and Greater Poland regions, whereas sheep breeding is more intensive only in the mountainous regions of southern Poland. The...

Poland

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
2

...once again the most powerful person in Poland. The government took steps to increase controls on the media and to instigate political control over the appointment of judges, amidst concern in Poland and from the EU. Relations with the EU declined further in 2017 when Poland alone refused to back extending Tusk’s position as President of the European Council. In response to potential Russian treats, NATO troops were deployed in spring 2017 . At the end of the year the EU began disciplinary action against Poland over judicial reforms and its failure to...

Poland

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,776 words

...had only two of the historic provinces: Great Poland and Little Poland. Warring against him, the Teutonic Knights occupied East Pomerania with Gdańsk , and the Czechs took possession of Silesia , the richest province, which was highly developed. The reign of Casimir the Great ( 1333–1370 ) brought stabilization and development in many spheres. Profiting from the enfeeblement of the Tatars, Casimir annexed Red Ruthenia (now western Ukraine ) to Poland after 1340 . Mazovia became a fief of the king of Poland. Reforms and new codes strengthened the ...

Poland

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,989 words

...territories of Poland-Lithuania stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. Population The population of Poland-Lithuania was about 7.5 million in 1500 , but it was unevenly distributed. In the kingdom of Poland, especially in Royal Prussia and the central regions of Great and Minor Poland, density may have approached fourteen to fifteen persons per square kilometer, but in Lithuania, where settlements were thinly scattered, the population was much sparser. Compared with western Europe, especially Italy and the Low Countries, Poland-Lithuania was not...

Poland

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Nazi Germany and Their Implementation in the Occupied Poland . Studia Historiae Oeconomica 11 (1976), 193–213. Łuczak, Czesław . Polityka ludnościowa i ekonomiczna hitlerowskich Niemiec w okupowanej Polsce . Poznań, Poland, 1979. Montias, J. H. Central Planning in Poland . New Haven, 1962. Taylor, J. The Economic Development of Poland 1919–1950 . Ithaca, N.Y., 1952. Yakowicz, J. V. Poland's Postwar Recovery: Economic Reconstruction, Nationalization and Agrarian Reform in Poland after World War II . Hicksville, N.Y., 1979. Zbigniew...

Poland

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Wojciech Gogoliński

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... . Although winemaking dates back to the introduction of christianity to Poland in 966 ad , it had all but died out by the end of the 15th century as beer and vodka became more popular and the climate became cooler. Vineyards persisted in Silesia (Śląsk), which was at that time German, and particularly, right up to the Second World War, around Zielona Góra (Grünberg). This was the region from which so many Silesians fled religious persecution and emigrated to barossa in Australia. Nevertheless, modern Poland has hundreds of villages and cities whose...

Poland

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The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,787 words
Illustration(s):
1

...History, 1996. Brzezinski, Mark . The Struggle for Constitutionalism in Poland . 2d ed. New York: St. Martin's Press. 2000. A good analysis of recent developments; see pp. 82–129. Fiszman, Samuel , ed. Constitution and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Poland: The Constitution of 3 May 1791 . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. Górecki, Piotr . Economy, Society, and Lordship in Medieval Poland, 1100–1250 . New York: Holmes and Meier, 1992. A thorough treatment of German law in Poland; see pp. 193–284. Izdebski, Hubert . “ L’évolution des institutions...

Poland

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,098 words
Illustration(s):
1

...women in Russian Poland lacked access to higher education, as many as five thousand of them left Poland for universities in western Europe. Those who stayed organized the underground “Flying University,” which provided classes in private homes. The most famous Flying University student was the scientist Marja Skłodowska , later known as Marie Curie . The organized women's movement in Poland dates back to the early 1890s, when women in Austrian and Russian Poland began organizing periodical congresses. The first feminist organization in Poland to be officially...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,234 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Poland. This did not, however, prevent the development of political parties demanding democratic government. After World War I in 1918 full independence was granted and Poland became a republic. War against Bolshevik Russia ( 1920–21 ) was followed by the dictatorship of Marshal Piłsudski. Poland was to have access to the port of Danzig (Gdańsk) via a Polish Corridor . The status of Danzig and the existence of this corridor provided an excuse for the Nazi invasion in 1939 , which precipitated World War II. As a result of the Nazi–Soviet Pact, Poland lost...

Poland

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Jim Samson

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,582 words

...Poland 1. From the Middle Ages to the 16th century Poland's troubled political history has impinged powerfully on the development of its musical life, and political upheaval has influenced our capacity to trace that development, for it has taken a cruel toll of essential documentation. Medieval sources are particularly scanty. While Gregorian chant arrived in Poland with the acceptance of Christianity in the 10th century, the earliest surviving Polish liturgical music dates from the 12th and 13th centuries. By the 15th century there are ample records of a...

Poland

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,250 words
Illustration(s):
1

...recognized the independent Poland which had been proclaimed in 1918 . Interwar Poland (1918–39) Even though Poland was to be an independent state from now on, for most of the century this independence was at best incomplete. From 1918 , it took another five years until all the borders of a state which had been out of existence for so long were fully determined. Most significantly, in the Russo-Polish War Poland extended its borders to the east to include large areas of Belorussia (now Belarus ) and the Ukraine . Poland was engaged in a series of...

Poland

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The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
475 words

...Poland Ballet in Poland dates from the 16th century when it featured as a court entertainment. The first Polish company was founded in 1785 , although it was short-lived, owing to the breakup of the country in 1794 . Warsaw, which fell to Russia, became a centre of ballet activity. The French choreographers Louis Thierry ( 1818–23 ) and Maurice Pion ( 1825–43 ) worked here. Thierry (with Julia Mierzynska ) created Cracow Wedding in 1823 , the oldest Polish ballet still in the repertoire. F. Taglioni , who worked as director in Warsaw ( 1843–53 ),...

Poland

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,053 words

...inherently unstable semipresidential system of government. Nevertheless Poland has sustained an enviable level of economic growth of six percent per year, is down to single-figure inflation accompanied by falling unemployment that is now below average EU levels, and has held its budget deficit to a respectable 1–2 percent. A vibrant private sector coupled with an impressive foreign direct investment of over US$20 billion has pushed Poland to the forefront of the transition countries. Poland still faces the politically as well as economically daunting task of...

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