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Pneumatomachi

Subject: Religion

Heretics who denied the full Godhead of the Holy Spirit. They came to the fore in 373, when Eustathius of Sebaste became their leader. They were condemned by Pope Damasus in 374. At its ...

Pneumatomachi

Pneumatomachi   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
85 words

... , heretics who denied the full Godhead of the Holy Spirit. They came to the fore in 373, when Eustathius of Sebaste became their leader. They were condemned by Pope Damasus in 374. At its peak, c. 380 , the sect contained a more conservative section which, while rejecting the Divinity of the Holy Spirit, accepted the consubstantiality of the Son, and a radical party which rejected this also. The Pneumatomachi were anathematized at the Council of Constantinople in 381 and soon...

pneumatomachi

pneumatomachi   Reference library

Lewis Ayres

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
335 words

... (Gk πνευματομάχοι ‎ ) This term is used first by Athanasius to describe those against whom he writes in his Epp. to Serapion of Thmuis (359–60). These had an account of the Son that Athanasius recognized as orthodox but subordinated the Spirit. Texts such as 1 Tim 5: 12 and Amos 4: 12–13 were important in their arguments. These texts are found a number of times in reports of others in subsequent generations who similarly protested against direct assertion of the Spirit’s divinity, but it seems unlikely that we should envisage a continuous and...

Pneumatomachi

Pneumatomachi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Heretics who denied the full Godhead of the Holy Spirit. They came to the fore in 373, when Eustathius of Sebaste became their leader. They were condemned by Pope Damasus in 374. At its peak, c.380, ...
Macedonius

Macedonius  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. c.362), Bp. of Constantinople from c.342. He supported the Semiarian cause and defended his position at the Council of Seleucia in 359. In 360 he was deposed by the Arian Council of ...
subordinationism

subordinationism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Teaching about the Godhead which regards either the Son as subordinate to the Father or the Holy Spirit as subordinate to both. It was a characteristic tendency in much teaching of the first three ...
Theosis

Theosis  

(θέωσις), or deification in the Byz. tradition, is the goal of man to which he is naturally destined and which is realized through the grace of God. In a Christian ...
St Niceta

St Niceta  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(d. c.414), ecclesiastical writer. He was Bp. of Remesiana (Beta Palanka, SE of Niš) from c.370. His Explanatio Symboli is a primary witness for the history of the Apostles' Creed, containing the ...
First Council of Constantinople

First Council of Constantinople  

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Religion
It was convened by Theodosius I to unite the E. Church at the end of the Arian controversy. It came to be regarded as the Second Oecumenical Council, even though no W. bishops were present. The work ...
homoousion

homoousion  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Greek, of one substance)Term used by Augustine to express the identity of the substance of the members of the Trinity; the principal doctrine affirmed in the Athanasian creed, drawn up to confute ...
Nicene Creed

Nicene Creed  

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Overview Page
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Religion
A formal statement of Christian belief which is very widely used in Christian liturgies, based on that adopted at the first Council of Nicaea in 325.
Tritheism

Tritheism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The heretical teaching about the Trinity which denies the unity of substance in the Divine Persons. The name is used especially of the teaching of a group of 6th-cent. Monophysites, including John ...
Atticus

Atticus  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(d. 425), Patr. of Constantinople from 406. Though a bitter opponent of St John Chrysostom, he realized that the quarrel with Rome over Chrysostom's condemnation weakened the prestige of his see; he ...
Basil, St, ‘the Great’

Basil, St, ‘the Great’  

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Religion
(c.330–79 [or possibly slightly earlier]), one of the three Cappadocian Fathers. The brother of St Gregory of Nyssa, he settled as a hermit near Neocaesarea in 358; he left his retirement only when ...
Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Inspiration or the attainment of a degree of prophecy; Heb. ruah ha-kodesh. The books of the Hagiographa such as Psalms and Proverbs (see BIBLE) are said to have been compiled under the Holy Spirit, ...
holy spirit

holy spirit   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
40 words

...spirit In Christian theology the cosubstantial third member of the Trinity. Commonly symbolized by a dove or pigeon, its distinct substantial existence has been denied, for example, by the 4th-century pneumatomachi (adversaries of the spirit) denounced by St Athanasius...

subordinationism

subordinationism   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
71 words

...subordinate to both. It was a characteristic tendency in much teaching of the first three cents., but by the standards of orthodoxy established in the 4th cent. it came to be regarded as heretical. The issue was dealt with in the conflicts with Arianism and then with the Pneumatomachi...

Macedonius

Macedonius (d. c.362)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
73 words

...Bp. of Constantinople from c. 342 . He supported the Semiarian cause and defended his position at the Council of Seleucia in 359. In 360 he was deposed by the Arian Council of Constantinople. From the end of the 4th cent. he has been regarded as the founder of the ‘ Pneumatomachi ’, but it is doubtful how far this association is...

Macedonius

Macedonius (362)   Reference library

Johannes Zachhuber

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
203 words

...the heteroousian cause and defended his position at the Council of Seleucia ( see Ariminum and Seleucia, Synods of ) in 359. In 360 he was deposed by the Arian Council of Constantinople. From the end of the 4th cent. onwards he has been regarded as the founder of the ‘ pneumatomachi ’ and thus caused the sect to be known as the ‘Macedonians’; but it is doubtful how far this association is correct, as it seems clear that disputes about the divinity of the Holy Spirit did not arise until after Macedonius’ deposition. It is not known whether he left any...

homoiousians

homoiousians   Reference library

Lewis Ayres

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
277 words

...sympathetically, and a number seem to have supported the pro-Nicene movement in the 360s and 370s. Basil of Caesarea himself was influenced by his namesake of Ancyra. Other members of the group continued to protest against assertion of the Spirit’s full divinity ( see pneumatomachi ). Lewis Ayres W. Löhr , ‘A Sense of Tradition: The Homoiousian Church party’, in M. Barnes and D. H. Williams (eds), Arianism after Arius (Edinburgh, 1993), 81–100. W. Löhr , Die Entstehung der homöischen und homöusianischen Kirchenparteien: Studien zur...

Basil, St, ‘the Great’

Basil, St, ‘the Great’ (c.330–79)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
241 words

...358; he left his retirement only when called upon by his bishop to defend orthodoxy against the Arian Emp. Valens. In 370 he became Bp. of Caesarea in Cappadocia. This office involved him in controversies with the extreme Arian party led by Eunomius , as well as with the Pneumatomachi , who denied the Divinity of the Holy Spirit. His writings include a large collection of letters, a treatise ‘On the Holy Spirit’, and three ‘Books against Eunomius’. With St Gregory of Nazianzus he compiled the ‘ Philocalia ’. He tried to reconcile the Semiarians to the...

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